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Bangalore University - Study Material - Cyberspace Security

Dear Students,

The following material for Soft Skill - Science and Society Materials, Bangalore University I am dedicating to all  III Semester MBA Students.

1. The WWW means that
a) World Wide Web       b) World Work Web        c) Both                  d) None

2. Internet works on
a) Packet switching         b) Circuit switching          c) Both                 d) None

3. Which one of the following is not an application layer protocol used in internet?
a) Remote procedure call             b) Internet relay chat     c) Resource reservation protocol             d) None of these

4. Which protocol assigns IP address to the client connected in the internet?
a) DHCP               b) IP       c) RPC                  d) None

5. Which one of the following is not used in media access control?
a) Ethernet         b) Digital subscriber line                c) Fiber distributed data interface            d) none

6. TCP/IP is a:
a) Network hardware    b) Network software     c) Protocol          d) None

7. OSI stands for:
a) Open system Interface            b) Out System Interface              c) Open System Interconnection             d) Out System Interconnection

8. TCP/IP mainly used for:
a) File Transfer                  b) Email                c) Remote Login Service                                d) All the above

9. IPX/SPX used for:
a) Linux                                b) Unix                c) Novel Net ware           d) Windows

10. NetBIOS is developed by:
a) Microsoft       d) IBM                  c) Sun                    d) None

11. Which network architecture is developed by IBM?
a) System Network Architecture              b) Digital Network Architecture                 c) Boroughs Network Architecture                          d) Distributed Network Architecture

12. Which is the lowest layer of TCP/IP model?
a) Host to Host Layer                      b) Network Access Layers            c) Internet Layer              d) application Layer

13. The most common method for gaining access to the Internet is through a ---
a) Dump terminal             b) Virtual provider or computer                c) Point-to-point computer         d) Provider or host computer

14. The term ISP refers to
a) Internal software protocol      b) International Shareware pool               c) Internet service provider        d) Interface standard protocol

15. The extensions .gov, .edu, .mil and .net are called
a) DNAs                                b) E-mail targets              c) Domain codes              d) Mail to address

16. URL is an acronym for ---
a) Uniform Resource Locator      b) Uniform Resource Link            c) Universal Reference Locator                  d) Unlimited Real-time Language



17. When surfing the web, the browser interprets the HTML command found in a document file, and displays it as a(n)
a) Applet page                  b) Java page                       c) Web page                      d) Domain page

18. HTML is an acronym for –
a) Hyperlink Markup Language                  b) Hypertext markup Language                 c) Hypertext Markup Link                            d) Hypertext Modern Language

19. Connections to other documents or to other locations within a website are
a) Filters               b) hyperlinks    c) plug-ins           d) bots

20. Hyperlinks in a Web document typically appear as
a) Bolded and underlined             b) Italicized and underlined         c) Underlined and colored         d) Bolded and italicized

21. Applets which is used for animation are typically written in a programming language called
a) XML                  b) Basic                c) Pascal               d) Java

22. Which of the following are not required in order to send and receive e-mail?
a) Email account               b) Web page      c) Access to the Internet              d) E-mail program

23. Which of the following is not one of basic elements of an e-mail message?
a) Header            b) Footer             c) Message         d) Signature

24. An internet standard for transferring files is known as
a) IRC                    b) Telnet              c) FTP                    d) WAIS

25. A(n) --- can be used to block access to specific sites.
a) Filter                b) Hardware block           c) Censor             d) Rubicon

Internet Technology
www – World Wide web

Tim Berners-Lee, in 1984 - inventor of the world wide web (www)

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

IP – Internet Protocol

Spamming – Unwanted bulk e-mails

Virus – Disrupts the normal functioning of computer systems

Pornography – Biggest threat related to mental health related life

Document Type Definition – DTD

HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language

XML – Extended Markup Language

SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language

CGI – Common Gateway Interface

SSI – Server Side Includes

PHP – Scripting Language

MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension

GIF – Graphics File Format

IAB – Internet Architecture Board

IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

IESG – Internet Engineering Task Force

InterNIC-Internet Network Centre

IRTF-Internet Research Task Force

ISOC-Internet Society

ISTF-Internet Social Task Force

W3C-World Wide Web Consortium

OASIS-Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards

IRT – Internet Related Technologies

HTTP-Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

HTTPS –Secured Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Computer Vision Syndrome – Eyestrain, Tired Eys, Irritation, Blurred Vision, Double Vision

Isnomia – Working into the evening increases the level of Melatonin that leads to sleep disturbances.

Repetitive Stress Injuries – Injured cells releases substances called cytokines that travel through the bloodstream
Advantages and disadvantages of Search Engines
Millions of people around the world uses search engine almost every walk of their life. We actually gain a lot of benefits from it. But it also brings us harmful effects. 
We can expand our knowledge easily through using search engine. There is no doubt that everyone must have something he did not know. In ancient times when people met difficult things beyond their abilities, they often went for books or knowledgeably persons. But nowadays we can simply put some key words in search box and then in few seconds internet fetches thousands of useful answers will show on your screen. What’s amazing
? 

But search engine also has disadvantages. Firstly, search engine shows too much useless information on our screen. Sometimes you even cannot find anything useful from searching results or reliable information. It consumes our time to pick up useful information from millions of searching results. Secondly, those who use search engine frequently may become lazy and information retention rate is reduced. As well people started losing the power of thinking, analyzing and doing calculations. Every time they meet difficulties they just go for search engine. They even do not spend a little time to think of them. Lastly search engine may bring people to various pornographic websites. Those websites are especially harmful for children. And search engine have not found the best way to keep those evil websites from kids now. 

Though search engine can benefit us a lot, we need to use it carefully in order to gain what we want and avoid harmful information. Search engine can become a powerful tool to learn new knowledge it also can hurt you. It depends on how you use search engine.

Advantages of social Networks and social Media
      A good tool to use to publicize your work
      Costs very little money to set up online
      Easy to create Facebook groups etc
      Online participation can be easier than face to face
      Cross border collaboration can be facilitated
      Social media is a powerful tool for outreach
      Massive potential to reach people
      Easy for online campaigns
      Social media can be an effective tool to create a movement

Disadvantages of social Networks and social Media
      Your message can be caught up in ‘commercial noise’
      Harder to gauge participation and commitment
      Not as effective as a face-to-face conversation?
      User drop-out
      Hits do not necessarily indicate attitude change


Social Network Privacy
         Facebook currently has over 400 million users
         Each of these users specify details about themselves
         Consider a social network as a graph, where the vertices are the users in the network, and the edges are friendship links between those users.
         Each node has a finite subset of detail types (hometown, birthdate, groups, books, etc.)
         Each detail type has a finite number of detail values (books = The Bible, Harry Potter, etc.)
Social Network Model Building
         We use these properties to construct three different models:
        Details Only
        Links Only
        Average
Friendship Hierarchy
         Propose several generic classes of friends:
        Friend
        Co-Worker
        Family
         Some classes can have (user-defined) specific sub-classes, such as a Best Friend, a Boss, a Parent, a child, etc.
Facebook
Facebook environment -- but my sense is that Facebook is best either for personal connections or corporate brands and less so for connecting with individuals (who aren't celebrities) you don't know personally.
Strengths:
Critical mass. Many people joined Facebook simply because so many other people and businesses they know were there. It's hard to argue with 750 million users. And it's not just numbers -- people tend to use the site frequently and stay for a while.
Keeping up with family, friends and acquaintances.
Brand promotion. When users "like" your company's Facebook page, they are in essence advertising it to all their other "friends."
Internal analytics. It's fairly easy to get stats about user activity on a corporate page.
Ease of engagement. It's exceptionally simple for users to express an opinion about something by clicking a button. Additional comment is optional, but that one simple click advertises the item to a user's social circle.
Weaknesses
Segmenting your life. Google+ appears to be focusing on this issue by organizing around "circles," allowing an easy way to target particular posts to friends, family, colleagues, etc. In fact you can do this on Facebook as well, but Facebook lists are not as easy to find or edit; nor are they as easy to view as a separate stream.
Privacy. With changing privacy mechanisms and unannounced changes that occasionally undo prior protections, it's best to assume that anything and everything you post on Facebook is public. That's fine for most professional and personal branding activities, but less so for a lot of other types of personal and professional communications.
Strengths:
Following interests. This is still my preferred platform for finding and following interesting people and issues.
Twitter is also excellent for creating temporary communities around events by use of hashtags.
Brevity. Twitter's short-form restrictions is ideally suited for an era of microscopic attention spans, allowing people to quickly scan for items of interest and click through for more when they want to.
Weaknesses:
Brevity. The 140-character limit that's appealing for some is a frustration for others. Not every important point can be whittled down to a tweet.Bottom of Form
Analytics. While there are plenty of ways to measure the effect of your own tweets, measuring how much traffic Twitter is generating overall can be difficult, since so much of it comes from desktop and mobile clients and not via twitter.com.
LinkedIn
Strengths:
Professional information. No major social networking site can touch LinkedIn for information about individual white-collar professionals as well as career opportunities and company info.
LinkedIn Today. To its credit, LinkedIn is trying to leverage its large user base for something besides career networking. LinkedIn Today is the site's effort to promote top-shared content, including breakdowns of stories by industry.
Weaknesses:
What's a connection? It used to be that LinkedIn connections meant something -- for instance, if two people had a 1st-degree connection, you could be confident one had first-hand knowledge about the other. Now, though, people seem to be connecting with others whom they barely know, if at all, making the research via networks less useful than it used to be.
Sharing is still limited. Sharing content is quite possible on LinkedIn, but not all that robust; for example, you can't scroll comments about the items, just see who shared. The site wasn't built for this, and it shows.
Google+
Although Facebook was the service designed initially for students, some adult Google+ early adapters were the ones acting a bit like junior high schoolers.
That's not Google's fault; and to their credit, Google did open up the Plus reasonably quickly after demand built up. However, they've been clear from the outset that Google+ is still in test mode and has bugs to work out.Changes are already in the works for later this week.
Strengths:
Segmenting your life. Plus is built around the idea that you've got different parts of your life, not all of which are interested in the same things. This isn't simply about hiding embarrassing photos from an employer, but understanding that your co-workers may not be interested in the video of your niece's play while your uncle has no idea what "desktop virtualization" is and wants to tune out any talk of it.
Video chats and hangoutsWhile Facebook finally did roll out video chat, it's just one-on-one for now. Google+, meanwhile, offers group chats -- and the ability to create a "hangout" where anyone invited can drop by as they wish. This may not have mass appeal, but the ability to ad-hoc video chat with a couple of colleagues in various locations can be handy, as I discovered last winter during an Apple FaceTime chat with several co-workers from home during a snowstorm.
Integration with the rest of Google. This is the potential Google+ killer app: a social media platform that's well integrated with everything from email (Gmail) and office productivity (Google Docs/Apps) to geolocation (Google Maps) and, yes, search.
Weaknesses:
Difficult to scan. When I open Google+, often there's just one item taking up the entire opening screen -- and that's on a 23-inch monitor. As the number of people in my circles rises, the scrolling required to catch up will become overwhelming. Google needs to rethink the display on the opening home screen.
Lack of brevity. While some find it freeing not to worry about tight limits for status updates, some will also abuse that freedom. Having what could be the equivalent of long-form blogs stacked up from dozens of people in one's circle may become someone daunting to sift through (one of the many things that turned me off to Google Buzz).
Lack of critical mass. Besides the obvious issue that Google+ is far behind major competitors in social media users, the service also isn't yet integrated into external Web sites' "share" buttons.
Why use? This is one of the biggest questions from skeptics: What's the compelling reason to move to (or add) Google+? You don't need to be a social media innovator to know that Facebook is a place to collect brand "fans" and/or find old friends; and, if you're running a conference, it's wise to publicize a Twitter hashtag. But what's use case for Google+? The answer may take a while; after all, few people envisioned Twitter as a crowds ourced breaking-news platform or Facebook as a personalized ad-serving mechanism during those services' early weeks.
For now, a number of early adopters are rebalancing their social media efforts to experiment with Google+ to find out what it does best. Whether you want to as well depends largely on whether it's important for you (or your company) to be among the first on a social media platform -- and whether your key customers expect to find you there.


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Bangalore University - Science and Society - Materials

Dear Students,

The following material for Soft Skill - Science and Society Materials, Bangalore University I am dedicating to all  III Semester B.Com, BBM, BBA Students .


1. The first Renaissance scientist was a man named --------- A. Nicolaus Copernicus  B. Galileo Galilei  C. Johannes Kepler     D. Isacc Newton Answer: A 2. Which is following fact true about Nicolaus Copernicus theory on planet earth? A. Earth is not the center of the universe B. Earth is the center of gravity and the lunar sphere C. Earth’s motions include rotation, revolution, and annual orientation/tilting of the axis D. All the above Answer: D 3. The heliocentric model of Copernicus theory states about. A. Earth Centered Universe B. Sun Centered Universe Answer: B 4. Which is the fact true about ‘Sun Centered Universe’? A. The only planets known and found were Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn B. All the planets were orbiting around the Sun C. Moon ignored the Sun’s orbit and orbited around the Earth’s…