Skip to main content

Bangalore University - Science and Society - Materials

Dear Students,

The following material for Soft Skill - Science and Society Materials, Bangalore University I am dedicating to all  III Semester B.Com, BBM, BBA Students .


1. The first Renaissance scientist was a man named ---------
A. Nicolaus Copernicus  B. Galileo Galilei  C. Johannes Kepler     D. Isacc Newton
Answer: A
2. Which is following fact true about Nicolaus Copernicus theory on planet earth?
A. Earth is not the center of the universe
B. Earth is the center of gravity and the lunar sphere
C. Earth’s motions include rotation, revolution, and annual orientation/tilting of the axis
D. All the above
Answer: D
3. The heliocentric model of Copernicus theory states about.
A. Earth Centered Universe
B. Sun Centered Universe
Answer: B
4. Which is the fact true about ‘Sun Centered Universe’?
A. The only planets known and found were Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
B. All the planets were orbiting around the Sun
C. Moon ignored the Sun’s orbit and orbited around the Earth’s orbit
D. All the above
Answer: D
5. Who proposed that the earth rotates daily and revolves around the sun?
A. Archimedes                                    B. Pythagoreans
C. Galileo Galilei                                D. Johannes Kepler
Answer: A
6. DNA without introns is
A. B-DNA       B. Z-DNA     C. Nuclear DNA       D. Mitochondrial DNA
Answer: D
8. Largest and the most developed part of the human brain is
A. Cerebellum   B.  Forebrain   c. Hypothalamus   D. Midbrain
Answer: A
9. Science is __________________ activity.
A. Individual        B. Social
C. Mandatory       D. None of the above
Answer: B
10. _________________is American author and professor of Biochemistry.
A. J.F Nash     B. Issac Newton
C. Charles Darwin      D. Issac Asimov
Answer: D
11. _________________ is the biggest satellite of solar system
A. Ganymede              B. Tollymede
C. Satranus                  D. None of the above
Answer: A
12. What is the maximum speed possible for any wave in the solar system?
A. Every wave can have its own speed
B. Speed of light
C. Speed of electron
D. None of the above
Answer: B
13. _______________ is the father of nuclear Physics.
A. Faraday                  B. W.L Bragg
C. Chadwick               D. Rutherford
Answer: D
14. Mendel worked on ____________ plant.
A. Ground nut            B. Cashew nut
C. Pea plant                 D. Tea-plant
Answer: C
15. The phenomenon of light to change its wavelength when it transverses a transparent material is called
A. Photo electric effect           B. Raman Effect
C. Dispersion                          D. Theory of relativity
Answer: B
16. Study of earth’s atmosphere is called ____________________
A. Physiology                         B. Astronomy
C. Hydrology              D. Meteorology
Answer: D
17. Cosmology is a study of
A. Religion                  B. Universe
C. Skin                        D. None of the above
Answer: B
18. ______________________ is a statement that we assume is true
A. Logic          B. Hypothesis
C. Inference    D. Axiom
Answer: D
19. _______________________ introduced scientific method
A. Isaac Newton         B. Francis Bacon
C. Albert Einstein       D. Charles Darwin
Answer: B
20. Knowledge from experience or experiments is called _____________ Knowledge.
A. Hypothesis                         B. Inference
C. Theorem                 D. Empirical
Answer: D
21. E=mc2 is an equation to prove
A. Photo electric effect           B. Radio activity
C. Brownian motion               D. Theory of relativity
Answer: D
22. Inexorable means
A. Unchanging            B. Changing
C. Relative                  D. Destructive
Answer: A
23. Primitive observer defined natural phenomenon as activity of
A. Super natural forces           B. Humans
C. Machines                            D. None of the above
Answer: A
24. Feudalism was replaced by…………………….
A. Humanities                         B. scientific revolution
C. Religion                              D. Ideology
Answer: B
25. Science and Technology in Ancient India is a work by……….
A. Joseph Needhan                 B. D.P Chattopadhyaya
C. Sushil Kanar Mukherjee     D. John Bernal
Answer: B
26.……………..is classical age of Indian science.
A. 300-600 AD                       B. 700-1200 AD
C. 400-900 A.D                      D. 900-1200AD
Answer: C
27. Greeks are to thank…………………for their scientific tradition
A. Babylonians                       B. Egyptians
C. Indians                               D. Both (a) and (b)
Answer: D
28. Arthur Schopenhauer is a ………..philosopher
A. German                              B. British
C. American                            D. French
Answer: A
29. The clay which showed the properties of nitroglycerine is called…………….
A. Safety powder or dynamite            B. dynamo
C. Gun powder                                   D. Hydrogen
Answer: A
30. ----- is the founder president of the West Bengal Academy of Science and Technology.
A. Prof. N.R Dhar                  B. J.C Ghosh
C. J.N Mukherjee                    D. Sushil Kumar Mukharjee
Answer: D
31. _______________ made science possible.
A. Feudalism               B. Capitalism
C. Poverty                   D. Political reasons
Answer: B
32. Ayurveda emerged during _____________________period
A. Post-Vedic period              B. Vedic period
 C. Indus valley                       D. Modern
Answer: D
33. Einstein received Nobel Prize for Physics in
A. 1919           B. 1920           C. 1921           D.1922
Answer: C
34. C.V Raman won Nobel Prize for
A. Literature               B. Chemistry
C. Physics                   D. Peace
Answer: C
35. True goal of scientific research is
A. Experimentation                 B. Theorization
C. Contribute to knowledge   D Material prosperity.
Answer: C
36. _____________is a discovery of Alexander Fleming.
A. Pencillin                 B. Radio
C. Television               D. Small-pox vaccine
Answer: A
37. Science is __________________ activity.
A. Individual              B. Social
C. Mandatory              D. None of the above
Answer: B
38. Average weight of man’s brain is ………………………….than woman’s.
A. Greater                   B. Lesser
C. Equal to                  D. None of the above
Answer: A
39. Who is the father of genetics.
A. Charles Darwin      B. Gustavo Kernel
C. Gregor Mendel       D. Isaac Asimov
Answer: C
40. What is a problem of the entire West
A. Poverty                   B. Illiteracy
C. The gulf between arts and science                         D. Language
Answer: C
41. ……………….. Was the beginning of all scientific activities of England
A. Elizabethan period                          B. Victorian age
C. Modern period                   D. Jacobean period
Answer: B
42. Origin of species is a work by
A. Mathew Arnold                 B. Charles Darwin
C. Albert Einstein                   D. Sigmund Freud
Answer: B
43.………………………… conflicted with faith in the Victorian period
A. Science                   B. Philosophy
C. Mathematics           D. None of these
Answer: A
44. The first unfavorable condition for the underdevelopment of science and its history is………
A. Few know the entirety of science
B. Few are capable of investigation by him all scientific questions
C. Both (A) and (B)
D. None of these
Answer: C
45. M.Berthelot disproved theory of ………
A. Evolution               B. Natural selection
C. Vitalism                  D. Origin of the universe
Answer: C
46. ----- is a form of social inquiry that focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences.
A. Empirical Research     B. Qualitative Research     C. Quantitative Research
Answer: B
47. Researchers use ------- to explore the behavior, perspectives, feelings and experiences of people and what lies at the core of their lives.
A. Empirical Research     B. Qualitative Research     C. Quantitative Research
Answer: B
48. The natural science model has which of the following scientific approach?
A. Positivism    B. Objectivism     C. Naturalism      D. All the above
Answer: D
49.  Every individual has a capacity to develop into a worthy person is propounded by
A. Cognitive theorist’s                        B. Psychoanalytic theorists
C. Humanistic theories                        D. Behavioristic theorists
                        Answer: C
50. The model which includes sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory is proposed by
A. Jenkin and Dallenbach                   B. Broadbent
C. Hermann Ebbinghaus                     D. Atkinson and Shiffrin
                        Answer: D

Question and answer
1. Give two examples of Cereals. (Wheat, rice, Malt, Oats)

2. Define the Kharif crop and give two examples. (The crops grown in rainy season are called as Kharif crops Ex. Paddy, Soya bean, Ground Nut).

3. Write about the importance of Green Revolution. (Indian population is growing enormously. Green Revolution is the need of the hour to increase food-grain production.)

4. Define the term Hybridization. (Crossing between genetically dissimilar plants)

5. What is the importance of Genetically Modified Crops? (It is another way of improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide the desired characteristic.)

6. Define the term mixed cropping and give two examples. (Two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece of land Ex. Wheat+ Gram; Wheat+ Mustard)

7. Distinguish between weeds, insect’s pests. (Weeds are unwanted plants in the crop field Insect pest is nuisance in the crop field)

8. What is Animal Husbandry?
It is a scientific management of animal livestock, includes feeding, breeding and diseases control. Animal-based farming includes cattle farming, Poultry farming, fish farming, and bee keeping.

9. Distinguish between aquaculture and mariculture. (Fish production is aquaculture. Growing of marine fishes is called mariculture.)

10. What is the importance of Bee Culture? (It is useful for honey, wax, and medicinal preparations. It also helps for additional income to the farmer.)

11. Define Industrial Revolution.
A series of changes took place that transformed Great Britain in particular and Europe in general, from a largely rural population, making a living almost entirely on agriculture to a town-centered society engaged increasingly in factory manufacture. This change was radical in nature, hence this period is known as the Industrial Revolution.

12. Who coined the term ‘Industrial Revolution’?
Blanqui, a French socialist in 1837 coined the term.

13. Where did the Revolution begin and when?
The Industrial Revolution began in England in 1750.

14. Which two movements can be regarded as the precursor of the Industrial Revolution?
The Renaissance and the Reformation movements can be regarded as the precursor of the Industrial Revolution.

15. Name two important causes that made England the first country to experience the Revolution.
Political stability and availability of coal and iron were the two important causes that made England the first country to experience the Revolution.

16. How did the constitutional government of Great Britain help in bringing about the Industrial Revolution?
The government of Great Britain was a parliamentary form of government; hence all got a free hand to do things on their own without much interference from their national government. This helped in Industrial Revolution.

17. When did Great Britain experience the ‘Demographic Revolution’?
After 1750 Great Britain experienced the ‘Demographic Revolution’.

18. When and by whom was the Flying Shuttle invented?
The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733 by John Kay.

19. In which year and by whom was the Spinning Mule invented?
The Spinning Mule was invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton.

20. What was the significance of Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny?
Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny could spin eight threads at a time instead of one thread like the old fashion spinning wheel.

21. What is the importance of James Watt?
In 1769, James Watt improved on the existing steam engines and made an engine which could drive the piston backward and forward and turn the wheels. His steam engine became the center of every industry.

22. Who is regarded as the father of the railway system? Where was the railway line to carry passengers laid?
George Stephenson is regarded as the father of the railway system. The railway to carry passengers was laid in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester.

23. When and where was the first railway line built in India?
In 1853 the first railway line was laid to carry passengers from Mumbai to Thane.

24. Who improved on Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny?
Richard Arkwright improved on Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny.

25. What was the Crompton’s Mule?
A weaver named Crompton invented this machine which combined the advantages of Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny and Arkwright’s Water Frame.

26. Name the first warship built of iron plates in England.
The first warship built of iron plates was the ‘Warrior’ in 1860.

27. Name the first Asian country to be industrialized.
Japan was the first Asian country to be industrialized.

28. Why did Russia face problems in her industrialization?
Russia was basically an agricultural country where peasants were bonded to their masters and could not leave their lands without their permission. Serfdom was abolished in 1861 and after that peasants got employed in factories. Also the Tsars were not progressive and only after the Communist Revolution did things change. Russia became the last European country to experience the Industrial Revolution.

29. State two economic effects of the Industrial Revolution.
The two economic effects of the Industrial Revolution were urbanization and emergence of factory system.

30. Name two important cities of England.
The two important cities of England were Liverpool and Manchester.

31. State two social effects of the Industrial Revolution.
The two social effects of the Industrial Revolution were:
i. Emergence of Industrial Capitalism which led to a division of society between the owners or the capitalists and the workers who earned wages under the owners
ii. Trade Union movements to look after the rights of the workers

32. What do you mean by ‘Industrial Capitalism’?
The Industrial Revolution resulted in the growth of industrial capitalism. As a result, the society was divided into capitalists, i.e. those who owned the means of production, and the workers, who worked under the capitalists for wages. This resulted in the concentration of economic power in a few hands, leading to gross social inequalities. A wide gulf was created between the capitalists and the workers.

33. Name some of the important socialist thinkers.
Karl Marx, Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Saint Simon are the four important socialist thinkers.

34. What is meant by Imperialism?
One of the political effects of the Industrial Revolution was the desire on the part of the industrialized countries to extend their territorial limits. This tendency is known as ‘imperialism’.

35. State two main activities of a modern Welfare State.
The two main activities of a modern Welfare State are:
 In modern Welfare State citizens receive public assistance during sickness, unemployment and old age.

36. How Galileo’s inventions differ from Copernicus?
Galileo was the first Astronomer to use what we call science to find out what the Universe is made of.  Copernicus was right, but he was only guessing

37. Mention few scientific inventions of Isaac Newton.
Isaac Newton was able to do.  He invented Calculus, a difficult type of math; he discovered prisms; he invented a new type of telescope; he discovered the laws of motion which govern how things move in space.
Newton realized that the force of gravity follows the same mathematical rules as light.  He did this by observing how quickly the Moon circles the Earth. 

38. Mention about Newton's Laws of motion.
 Isaac Newton was the first person to understand how objects move in outer space.  He came up with three laws, which we still use today.   He described these laws as such:
1.  An object continues at rest or in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by another object or force. 
2.  The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to its mass.  In other words, the heavier an object is the more energy it will take to speed it up or slow it down.
3.  To every action there is an opposite and equal reaction.  Or in other words, if you push on something in outer space, it will push against you just as hard.  If you throw something in outer space, you will go the opposite direction.

39. Define Epistemology.
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge and is concerned with the question of what counts as valid knowledge.

40. Define Methodology.
Methodology refers to the principles and ideas on which researchers base their procedures and strategies.
The methodology – the underlying rationale and framework of ideas and theories and it determines approaches, methods and strategies to be adopted.

41. Define Triangulation.
Triangulation is the process by which several methods such as data sources, theories and researchers are used in the study of one phenomenon.

42. What is intron?
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene.

43.  List few contributions of western civilization.
Galileo’s role in changing our perception of our place in the universe; Newton’s demonstration that the same laws apply to motion in the heavens and on earth; Darwin’s long observations of the variety and relatedness of life forms that led to his postulating a mechanism for how they came about; Lyell’s identification of infectious disease with tiny organisms that could be seen only with a microscope.

44. Which are all the diseases does not respond to antibiotic.
Cold or flu-like illnesses are caused mainly by viruses and therefore will not respond to antibiotics.

45. Mention few of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria’s are MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).
Multi-resistant E. coli and Acinetobacter, both of can cause life-threatening infections.

46. What is the Importance of Relating Science and Society?
Science and technology are integral parts of today’s world. Technology, which grows out of scientific discovery, has changed and will continue to change our society. Utilization of science in the solution of practical problems has resulted in complex social issues that must be intelligently addressed by all citizens. Students must be prepared to understand technological innovation, the productivity of technology, the impact of the products of technology on the quality of life, and the need for critical evolution of societal matters involving the consequences of technology
Understand how society influences science and technology, as well as how science and technology influence society. Understand that the generation of scientific knowledge depends upon the inquiry process and upon conceptual theories.
Recognize the origin of science and understand that scientific knowledge is tentative, and subject to change as evidence accumulates.

47. What is the name of conventional genetic disease?
Sickle cell disease

48. Discuss briefly about antibiotics.
Antibiotics have only been available to treat bacterial infections since 1941 and in the intervening period have saved millions of lives. Infections that used to be fatal, such as pneumonia and meningitis, can now be cured with a course of antibiotics.

For example blood-thinners prescribed for stroke prevention, an antibiotic prescribed for an individual has implications for other members of society. The emergence of resistance can spread and resistant bacteria can subsequently cause serious infections in others.

Therefore, the doctor must balance the needs of the individual patient and the choice of antibiotic, against the potential consequences of emerging antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotic resistance and the appropriate use of antibiotics is an increasingly important topic in medical undergraduate and postgraduate curricula. All doctors need to understand which antibiotics to use and when, and also how to avoid some of the common side effects, such as nausea, skin rashes and diarrhoea.

49.  Mention the beneficial effect on scientific creativity.
  • Scientific advancements to cure endemic diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS etc
  • Increased life expectancy
  • The Infant mortality rate dropped
  • Access to safe water
  • GNP per capita income has grown up
  • The rise of the microcomputer has enabled spectacular progress in many aspects of society, with computing power now almost doubling every 18 months.
  • Cellular phones and cheap computers are beginning to bring Internet to even rural areas of developing countries, with major implications for distance learning and democratization.
  • Alongside the microchip, the emergence of genetic engineering and biotechnology must be the most revolutionary development in the second half of the last century.

 50. Define Hypothesis.
In science, a hypothesis is an idea or an explanation that could be tested through study and experimentation. Outside science, a theory or guess can also be called a hypothesis.

.51. Brief about few contributions of the scientist Aristotle.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) – who is the founder of both science and philosophy of science. He wrote several topics we now call physics, astronomy, psychology, biology, and chemistry, as well as logic, mathematics, and epistemology.

52. Discuss about the industrial applications of Lasers.
Lasers are widely used in manufacturing, e.g. for cutting, drilling, welding, cladding, soldering (brazing), hardening, ablating, surface treatment, marking, engraving, micromachining, pulsed laser deposition, lithography, alignment, etc. In most cases, relatively high optical intensities are applied to a small spot, leading to intense heating, possibly evaporation and plasma generation. Essential aspects are the high spatial coherence of laser light, allowing for strong focusing, and often also the potential for generating intense pulses.

53. Discuss about the medical applications of Lasers.
Eye surgery, vision correction (LASIK), dentistry, dermatology (e.g. photodynamic therapy of cancer), and various kinds of cosmetic treatment such as tattoo removal and hair removal.
Lasers are also used for surgery (e.g. of the prostate), exploiting the possibility to cut tissues while causing minimal bleeding. Some operations can be done with endoscopic

54. Discuss about a common scheme of classifications for antibiotics.  
A common scheme of classifications for antibiotics
55. How Do Antibiotics Work?
Various types of antibiotics work in either of the following two ways:
  1. A Bactericidal antibiotic kills the bacteria generally by either interfering with the formation of the bacterium's cell wall or its cell contents.
Penicillin, daptomycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole are some example of Bactericidal antibiotics.
  1. A Bacteriostatic antibiotic stops bacteria from multiplying by interfering with bacterial protein production, DNA replication, or other aspects of bacterial cellular metabolism. Some Bacteriostatic antibiotics are tetracyclines, sulphonamides, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, macrolid, and lincosamides.

56. What causes antibiotic resistance?
A bacterium is resistant to a drug when it has changed in some way that either protects it from the action of the drug or neutralizes the drug. Any bacterium that survives an antibiotic treatment can then multiply and pass on its resisstive properties. Also, some bacteria can transfer their drug-resistant properties to other bacteria — as if passing along a cheat sheet to help each other survive.
The fact that bacteria develop resistance to a drug is normal and expected. However, the way that drugs are used affects how quickly and to what extent drug resistance occurs.

57. List the various cause and effects due to the overuse of antibiotics.
The overuse of antibiotics — especially taking antibiotics even when they're not the appropriate treatment — promotes antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics treat bacterial infections, but not viral infections. For example, an antibiotic is an appropriate treatment for strep throat, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. It's not, however, the right treatment for most sore throats, which are caused by viruses.
If you take an antibiotic when you actually have a viral infection, the antibiotic is still attacking bacteria in your body — bacteria that are either beneficial or at least not causing disease. This misdirected treatment can then promote antibiotic-resistant properties in harmless bacteria that can be shared with other bacteria.
Common viral infections that do not benefit from antibiotic treatment include:
  • Cold
  • Flu (influenza)
  • Bronchitis
  • Most coughs
  • Most sore throats
  • Some ear infections
  • Some sinus infections
  • Stomach flu (viral gastroenteritis)

58. Study of Science and its Types
1. Physics
2. Chemistry
3. Biology
4. Cosmology
5. Meteorology
6. Food Technology
7. Medical Sciences
8. Psychology
9. Neurology
10. Marian Sciences
11. Brain Sciences
12. Genetic Engineering
13. Nuclear Science
14. Nano Technology


Antibiotic Classifications and Indications.
Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis
Penicillins
(bactericidal: blocks cross linking via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
Class/Mechanism
Drugs
Indications (**Drug of Choice)
Toxicity
Penicillin
Penicillin G
Aqueous penicillin G
Procaine penicillin G
Benzathine penicillin G
Penicillin V
Strep. pyogenes (Grp.A)**
Step. agalactiae (Grp.B)**
C. perfringens(Bacilli)**
Hypersensitivity reaction
Hemolytic anemia
Aminopenicillins
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Above +
↑ Gram-negative:
E. faecalis**
E. Coli**
 Above
Penicillinase-resistant-penicillins
Methicillin
Nafcillin
Oxacillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin
Above +
PCNase-producingStaph. aureus
Above +
Interstitial nephritis
Antipseudomonal penicillins
Carbenicillin
Ticarcillin
Piperacillin
Above +
Pseudomonas aeruginosa**
 Above
Cephalosporins
(bactericidal: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis via competitive inhibition of the transpeptidase enzyme)
1st generation 
Cefazolin
Cephalexin
Staph. aureus**
Staph. epidermidis**
Some Gram-negatives:
E. Coli
Klebsiella
Allergic reaction
Coombs-positive anemia (3%)
2nd generation
Cefoxitin
Cefaclor
Cefuroxime
Above +
↑ Gram-negative
Allergic Reaction
ETOH Disulfiram reaction
3rd generation
Ceftriaxone
Cefotaxime
Ceftazidime
Cefepime (4th generation)
Above +
↑ Gram-negative
Pseudomonas
Allergic Reaction
ETOH Disulfiram reaction
Other Cell Wall Inhibitors
Vancomycin q
(bactericidal: disrupts peptioglycan cross-linkage)
 Vancomycin
MRSA**
PCN/Ceph allegies**
S. aureus
S. epidermidis
Red man syndrome
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Beta-lactamase Inhibitors 
(bactericidal: blocking cross linking)
Clavulanic Acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam
S aureus**
S epidermis**
E.Coli**
Klebsiella**
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Hemolytic anemia
Carbapenems
Imipenem (+ cilastatin)
Meropenem
Doripenem
Ertapenem
Broadest activity of any antibiotic
(except MRSA, Mycoplasma)

Aztreonam
Aztreonam
Gram-negative rods
Aerobes
Hospital-acquired infections

Polymyxins
Polymyxin B
Polymyxin E
Topical Gram-negative infections

Bacitracin
Bacitracin
Topical Gram-positive infections

Protein Synthesis Inhibition
Anti-30S ribosomal subunit
Aminoglycosides
(bactericidal: irreversible binding to 30S) q 
q
Gentamicin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycin
Aerobic Gram-negatives
Enterobacteriaceae
Pseudomonas
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Tetracyclines
(bacteriostatic: blocks tRNA)
Tetracycline
Doxycycline
Minocycline
Demeclocycline
Rickettsia
Mycoplasma
Spirochetes 
(Lyme's disease)
Hepatotoxicity
Tooth discoloration Impaired growth
Avoid in children < 12 years of age
Anti-50S ribosomal subunit
Macrolides
(bacteriostatic: reversibly binds 50S)
Erythromycin
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Streptococcus
H. influenzae
Mycoplamsa pneumonia
Coumadin Interaction (cytochrome P450)
Chloramphenicol
(bacteriostatic)
Chloramphenicol
H influenzae
Bacterial Meningitis
Brain absces
Aplastic Anemia
Gray Baby Syndrome
Lincosamide
(bacteriostatic: inhibits peptidyl transferase by interfering with amino acyl-tRNA complex)
Clindamycin
Bacteroides fragilis
S aureus
Coagulase-negative Staph & Strep
Excellent Bone Penetration
Pseudomembranous colitis
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Linezolid
(variable)
Linezolid
Resistant Gram-positives

Streptogramins
Quinupristin
Dalfopristin
VRE
GAS and S. aureus skin infections

DNA Synthesis Inhibitors
Fluoroquinolones
(bactericidal: inhibit DNA gyrase enzyme, inhibiting DNA synthesis)
1st generation  
Nalidixic acid
Steptococcus
Mycoplasma
Aerobic Gram +
Phototoxicity
Achilles tendon rupture
Impaired fracture healing q
2nd generation
Ciprofloxacin
Norfloxacin
Enoxacin
Ofloxacin
Levofloxacin
As Above +Pseudomonas
as above
3rd generation
Gatifloxacin
As above + Gram-positives
as above
4th generation
Moxifloxacin
Gemifloxacin
As above + Gram-positives + anaerobes
as above
Other DNA Inhibitors
Metronidazole
(bacteridical: metabolic biproducts disrupt DNA)
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Anaerobics
Seizures
Crebelar dysfunction
ETOH disulfram reaction
RNA Synthesis Inhibitors
Rifampin
(bactericidal: inhibits RNA transcription by inhibiting RNA polymerase)
Rifampin
Staphylococcus
Mycobacterium 
(TB) q
Body fluid discoloration
Hepatoxicity (with INH)
Mycolic Acids Synthesis Inhibitors
Isoniazid
Isoniazidz
TB
Latent TB

Folic acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Trimethoprim/Sulfonamides
(bacteriostatic: inhibition with PABA)
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (SMX)
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfadiazine
UTI organisms
Proteus
Enterobacter
Thrombocytopenia
Avoid in third trimester of pregnancy
Pyrimethamine
Pyrimethamine
Malaria
T. gondii


Unit I
Science Definitions proposed by scientists and forums
1.            Dr.Sheldon Gottlieb – Science is an intellectual activity carried out by humans, which is designed to discover information about the natural world. A primary aim of science is to collect facts.
2.         Webster’s new collegiate dictionary – Science is a knowledge covering General truths of the operation of general laws.
3.            Which of the following definition for ‘Science’ has been coined by ‘Carl Sagan’
A.     Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge
B.      Is an intellectual activity carried out by humans
C.      Science is a knowledge covering General truths of the operation of general laws
D.     All of science is uncertain and subject to revision.
4.            Freeman Dyson – All of science is uncertain and subject to revision. The glory of science is to imagine more than we can prove.
5.            Robert H. Dott & Henry Batten – Science consists simply of the Formulation of Hypothesis, Design, Experiment and Inferences.
Branches of science:
Pure – Aspect of knowledge which exists as a theoretical and abstract discipline.
Applied – It is concerned with the application of scientific methods, principles and findings to the immediate needs of humanity.
Natural – Branch of knowledge which deals with natural objects and natural events such as human life, plants, rocks and heavenly bodies. Examples of natural science include physics, chemistry, astronomy, botany, zoology and geology etc.,
Soft or inexact – The laws and generalizations of social science are less precise and less predictable. Economics, political science, sociology, psychology, social anthropology are all branches of social science.
History of science – 1200’s :
Robert Grosseteste – proposed a proper method of scientific investigation and experimentation.
Combining the development of writing enabled knowledge with the development of agriculture became possible of early civilization and search for knowledge.
History of science : 1400’s
Leonardo Da Vinci began his notebooks in pursuit of evidence that the human body is microcosmic. The artist, scientist and mathematician also gathered information about optics and hydrodynamics.
1.       Drawn a sketch for airplane, helicopter & parachute, the submarine, the armored car, the ballista.
2.       Rapid – fire guns
3.       Ball bearings
4.       Worm gear
5.       The centrifugal pump
Johannes Gutenberg was a German craftsman who is the inventor of first printer in 1450. He also produced dies and molds for easily producing individual pieces of metal type. The use of printing press began the standardization of spelling.
Martin Behaim was a German mapmaker, navigator and merchant.
He made the earliest globe called the “Nurnberg Terrestrial Globe” during 1490-1492.
The mathematician Georg Purbach (1423-1461) began a series of lectures on astronomy at the University of Vienna.
Regiomontanus who was one of his students, collected his notes on the lectures and later published them as Theoricae novae planetarum in the 1470s.
History of science : 1500’s
Nicolaus Copernicus discovered the heliocentric model of the solar system in 1543. He worked out that the Earth, and all the other planets in our solar system, moves around the Sun.
An Italian doctor named Versalius published the first accurate drawings of the human body.
Ambrose Pare (1575) a French army surgeon, was the first person to successfully use bandages and soothing ointments to treat wounds and prevent infections.
Zacharias Janssen was Dutch lens-maker who invented the first compound microscope in 1595.
History of science : 1600’s
Johannes Kepler built the laws of planetary motion.
Galileo improved on a new invention in 1610 based on mathematically based theory.
Isaac Newton developed his laws of motion in 1600s.
English doctor William Harvey (1628), proved for the first time, that the heart was a pump and circulated blood around the body. The led the experiments with blood transfusion.
A Dutchman, Christian Huggens (1965), made big improvements on earlier telescopes.
Marcello Malpighi (1661) observed capillary action in the frog’s lungs and writes to the Royal Society.
Christopher Merrett (1662) found a technique of double fermentation to produce sparkling wine and later he communicated to the Royal Society.
Charles II his physician Walter Charleton and John Aubery (1663) viewed the Neolithic stone circle at Avebury in Wiltshire and submitted the plans to Royal Society. As a result of this modern archaeology began.
The Royal Society publishes Robert Hooke’s Micrographia (1665), containing landmark drawings made using a microscope. By that time this book coined the word ‘cell’ a biological term.
Ntoni van Leeuwenhoek (1677) saw the little animals/micro-organisms under the microscope. The Royal society repeats his observation and the science of microbiology was born.
Sir Isaac Newton’s (1787) Principia Mathematica describing the action of gravity was published by the Royal society with the help of Edmond Halley.
History of science during 1700s
Benjamin Franklin discovered (1752) that lightning is an electrical action. And also he has contributed to the study of oceanography and meteorology.
Understanding of chemistry also evolved during this century by Antoine Lavoisier.
The English astronomer, Edmund Halley (1705) successfully predicted the appearance of Halley’s Comet, using the latest telescope and mathematical calculations.
The first foreign secretary of Royal Society, Philip Henry Zollman (1723) is appointed
William Herschel (1781) discovers a new body in the solar system and reported to the Royal society as Georgium Sidus later on it was renamed as Uranus in 1783.
Unit I - MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
MCQ – The underlined options are considered to be the opt answers
1.       The word science comes from the
a)      Latin                                b) Greek              c) Sanskrit           d) English
2.       The word science comes from the Latin “scientia”, meaning.
a)      Natural Phenomena                 b) Knowledge      c) Physical evidence     d) Experimentation
3.       Science refers to –
a) A system of acquiring knowledge                         b) A system of natural phenomena         c) a system of physical evidence    d) A system of experimentation
4.       ----- is a systematic and logical approach in discovering how things in the universe work.
a)      History            b) Astrology       c) Science            d) Mathematics
5.       The purpose of science is the systematic study of –
a)   Make a system of natural phenomena               b) Produce useful models of reality        c) Make a system of physical evidence      d) Make a system of experimentation
6.       A social science is the systematic study of ---
a)      The natural world    b) Models of reality        c) Human behavior and society d) Experimentation
7.       Anatomy is the study of –
a)                  Structure of an animal or plant  b) Life on earth and in space       c) Structure and interactions of the complex organic molecules found in living systems
8.       Evolutionary biology is the study of –
a)Structure of an animal or plant               b) Life on earth and space            c) dealing with plant life                                d) Evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on earth
9.       Genetics is the study of ---
a)                  Human evolution, variation and classification      b) Cell structure and function     c) Heredity         d) Dealing with plant life
10.   Immunology is the study of ---
a)                  All aspects of the immune system           b) Human evolution, variation and classification c) Heredity          d) Dealing with plant life
11.   Neuroscience is the study of ---
a)               Structure or function of the nervous system and brain  b) Structure and function of the macromolecules               c) Human evolution, variation and classification                 d) Microorganisms – bacteria, protozoan parasites, viruses and fungi
12.   Toxicology is the study of ---
a) The structure of an animal or plant     b) The nature, effects and detection of poisons                                c) All aspects of the immune system              d) Microorganisms – Bacteria, protozoan parasites, viruses and fungi
13.   The English word scientist was first coined by
a)               Landsteiner                        b) Oldham           c) Einstein           d) William Whewell
14.   Empirical investigation of the natural world has been described since classical antiquity by
a)                  Haber    b) Oldham           c) Einstein           d) Aristotle
15.   Scientific methods have been employed since the middle ages by ---
a)               Haber    b) Ibn al-Haytham           c) Oldham           d) Einstein
16.   Which stage scientists do not always possess exquisite technical skills?
a)                  2nd stage              b) 3rd stage         c) 4th stage          d) 1st stage
17.   In 1543 --- proposed to switch the places of the Earth and the Sun.
a)                  Nicholas Copernicus      b) Galieo              c) Oldham           d) Einstein
18.   Who hoped that “my labors contribute somewhat even to the Commonwealth of the Church”?
a)                  Oldham                b) Nicholas Copernicus                 c) Galileo             d) Einstein
19.   The surface of the Moon is not smooth, uniform, and precisely spherical as a great number of philosophers believe it to be, but is uneven, rough, and full of cavities and prominences, being not unlike the face of the Earth, relieved by chains of mountains and deep valleys.
a)                  Nicholas Copernicus       b) Galileo            c) Oldham           d) Einstein
20.   Who laid down the first accurate laws of motion for masses?
a)               Nicholas Copernicus       b) Galieo             c) Oldham           d) Einstein
21.   Who introduced telescope?
a)               Nicholas Copernicus       b) Galieo             c) Oldham           d) Haber
22.   The Renaissance was a time of great --- change in Europe.
a)   Social                             b) Cultural                           c) Both                 d) None of these
23.   The Renaissance spanned from the
a)               13th to the 16th centuries               b) 14th to the 16th centuries         c) 14h to the 15th centuries           d) 15th to the 16th centuries
24.   The Renaissance birthplace
a)            Italy       b) America          c) India                 d) Australia
25.   The European renaissance began in Northern Italy in
a)            1th century      b) 12th century     c) 13th century     d) 14th century 
26.   The _____ city is considered the birth place of renaissance.
a)            London    b) Delhi    c) Paris    d) Tuscan
27.   New  way of thinking, sparked by a philosophy known as
a)                  Humanism      b) socialism   c) behaviorism    d) Politics 
28.   Pioneering renaissance scientists  and inventor include
a)                  Galileo Galilei     b) Leonardo da Vinci       c) Both     d) none of these
29.   In 1507 an Italian writer named ______ published a famous book called ‘The Courtier’.
a)               Nicholas Copernicus      b) Oldham     c) Count Baldassare Castiglione   d) Haber
30.   Rediscovery of rational civilization exemplified by
a)                  Greece     b) Rome    c) Both   d) None
31.   Representation of property owners’ interest is called
a)               Politics & the state     b) Ideology     c) Agricultural development    d)  Infrastructure
32.   Property right as central to conception of right is called
a)               Politics & the state     b) Ideology     c) Agricultural development    d)  Infrastructure
33.   The creation of agricultural surplus is called
a)            Politics & the state     b) ideology     c) Agricultural development    d)  Infrastructure
34.   Road and canal systems, port and ships called
a)               Politics & the state     b) ideology     c) Agricultural development    d)  Infrastructure
35.   The first stage of the industrial revolution:
a)               Consumable goods production    b) Capital goods production  c) Standardization   d) Productivity
36.   Second stage of the industrial revolution:
a)               Consumable goods production    b) Capital goods production  c) Standardization   d) Productivity
37.   Who did the first moonwalk in 1969?
a)               American buzz Aldin    b) Landsteiner    c) Oldham      d) Einstein
38.   The first moonwalk in the year-
a)               1968    b) 1969  c) 1967    d) 1970
39.   The first airplane was flown in ---
a)               1902       b) 1901                 c) 1903                  d) 1904
40.   The structure of DNA was determined  ---
a)      1963               b) 1953                 c) 1967                  d) 1970
41.   Who discovered penicillin?
a)                  James Watson   b) Alexandar Fleming    c) Oldham           d) Einstein
42.   The structure of DNA was determined in 1953 by ---
a)            James Watson  b) Landsteiner   c)Oldham            d) Einstein
43.   Quantum theory was proposed by ---
a)            Planck   b) Landsteiner   c) Oldham           d) Einstein
44.   Who discovered human blood groups?
a)            Planck   b) Landsteiner                  c) Oldham           d) Einstein
45.   Establishment of the scientific study of animal behavior
a)            Cornell                  b) Meitner          c) Lorenz              d) Heisenberg
46.   Birth of radio astronomy
a)            Jansky                   b) Cornell            c) Meitner           d) Heisenberg
47.   First electron microscope-
a)            Tatum                   b) Mayor             c) Krebs                                d) Ruska
48.   Discovery of the neutron
a)      Wieman                       b) Chadwick       c) McCarty          d) Borlaug
49.   Discovery of the positron, first antimatter particle
a)      Wieman                       b) McCarty          c) Anderson       d) ornell
50.   Magnitude scale for earthquakes
a)      Cornell          b) Meitner          c) Richter             d) Heisenberg
51.   Theory of nuclear force
a)      Yukawa        b) McCarty          c) Borlaug            d) Kapitza
52.   Discovery of the citric acid cycle
a)      Krebs            b) Wieman          c) Mccarty           d) Cornell
53.   Nuclear reactions in stars were found out by
a)      Wieman       b) McCarty          c) Bethe               d) Cornell
54.   Evidence in bacteria that DNA is the genetic material
a)      MacLeod     b) McCarty          c) Borlaug            d) Kapitza
55.   The Start of the Mexican wheat improvement program, leading to the “green revolution”
a)      McCarty       b) Borlaug           c) Kapitza             d) Ornell
56.   Formulation of the one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis
a)      Cornell          b) Meitner          c) Heisenberg    d) Beadle & Tatum
57.   Radiocarbon dating
a)      Libby             b) McCarty          c) Borlaug            d) Kapitza
58.   Initial elucidation of the reactions involved in photosynthesis
a)      Wieman       b) Calvin              c) Mccarty           d) Borlaug
59.   Invention of the transistor
a)      Shockley      b) McCarty          c) Borlaug            d) Kapitza
60.   Production of amino acids in early Earth” conditions
a)      Miller & Urey            b) Cornell            c) Meitner           d) Heisenberg
61.   First complete DNA sequence of an organism
a)      Sanger          b) Wieman          c) McCarty          d) Borlaug
62.   First extra solar planet identified by
a)      Mayor           b) Bednorz          c) Tatum              d) Meitner
63.   The definition of Modern Science is defined as an attitude of observation and experimentation quite often with the inclusion of mathematics to explain those
a)      Observations             b) Experimentation         c) Mathematics                 d) None of these
64.   Modern science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the
a)      Material world         b) People and Societies                 c) Mathematics                 d) Experimentation
65.   The social sciences which study --
a)  Material world          b) People and Societies                                c) Mathematics                 d) Experimentation
66. The formal science like
a)       Material world         b) People and Societies                 c) Mathematics                                d) Experimentation
67.      The result of a process of inductive reasoning –
a)      Scientific Method  b) Mathematical Method             c) Hypothesis    d) None of these
68.      The process of Hypothesis Testing has –
a)      6 Step           b) 7 Step              c) 5 step               d) 8 Step
69.   Allows extra time for everything that can and will go wrong
a)      Murphy’s law            b) Newton law                  c) Ohms law       d) None of these
70.   The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including-
a)      Natural sciences       b) Social sciences             c) None of these              d) Both a and b
71.   The history of the arts and humanities is termed as ---
a)      Natural sciences       b) Social sciences             c) History of scholarship                               d) None of these
72.    Proto-Mathematics from-
a)      30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                    b) 2000 BCE up to 800 BCE                            c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
73.      Ancient Mathematics from—
a)      30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                    b) 2000 BCE up to 800                     c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
74. Mercantile Mathematics from
a)      30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                    b) 2000 BCE up to 800 BCE                            c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
75.  Classical Mathematics from-
a)      30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                    b) 2000 BCE up to 800 BCE                            c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
76. Pre-Modern Mathematics from
a) 30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                       b) 1500 CE up to 1700 CE                               c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
77. Modern Mathematics from ---
a)   30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                      b) 2000 BCE up to 800 BCE                            c) 1700 CE to 1950 CE
d)  1400 CE to 1500 CE
78. Post-Modern Mathematics from
a)      30000 BCE, up to 2000 BCE                    b) 2000 BCE up to 800 BCE                            c) 800 BCE to 1500 CE
d)  1950 CE to present
79. Yukti means
a) Skill                   b) Human intervention                  c) Both                  d) None of these
80. Daiva means
a) Divine              b) Skill                   c) Human intervention                  d) None of these
81. In India the field of Ayurveda, depended heavily on the use of
a) Herbs               b) Plants              c) Animals           d) None of these
82. Traditional Indian herbal remedies are
a) Neem              b) Turmeric                         c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
83. The plants were first used for medical purposes
a) Vaccination    b) Rhinoplasty                   c) Herbalism                      d) None of these
84. Atharvaveda dating from the early
a) Iron Age          b) Bronze Age                   c) Aluminium Age            d) None of these
85. Ayurveda, meaning
a) Complete knowledge for long life      b) Complete knowledge               c) Long life          d) None of these
86. Ayurveda famous texts belong to the schools of
a) Charaka           b) Sushruta         c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
87. Which medicine got deep roots and royal patronage during medieval times.
a) Unani               b) Ayurveda                       c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
88. The wootz steels were discovered in
a) India                 b) Japan               c) England           d) Iran
89. The first basic step in metallurgy is
a) Identifying and discovering its usefulness      b) Locating metals in quantity     c) Mining the ores           d) Melting the metal
90. The second basic step in metallurgy is
a)  Identifying and discovering its usefulness       b) Locating metals in quantity   c) Mining the ores           d) Smelting the metal
91. The third basic step in metallurgy is
a) Identifying and discovering its usefulness        b) Locating metals in quantity     c) Mining the ores           d) Smelting the metal
92. Basic ages of metals in the ancient world
a) Copper Age   b) Bronze Age   c) Iron Age          d) All the above
93. Copper Age
a) 4000 – 3000 BCE           b) 3000-1000 BC                c) 1000 BCE to the present           d) None of these
94. The Bronze Age
a) 4000 – 3000 BCE           b) 3000-1000 BC                c) 1000 BCE to the present           d) None of these
95. The Iron Age
a) 4000 – 3000 BCE           b) 3000-1000 BC                c) 1000 BCE to the present           d) None of these

Unit II - MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
MCQ – The underlined options are considered to be the opt answers
1.       Darwinism is a theory of ---
a)      Biological evolution       b) Physical evolution      c) Geometric evolution     d) None of these
2.       Darwinism is a theory developed by –
a)      Charles Darwin                 b) Weismann     c) Bhaskaran                      d) None of these
3.       Genetic drift is change of
a)      Gene frequency in same generation       b) Appearance of recessive genes           c) Gene frequency from one generation to next                 d) None of these
4.       Which one of the following changes involved in irrelevant, in the evolution of man?
a) Perfection of hand for toll making                               b) Change of diet from hard nuts and hard roots to soft food              c) Loss of tail      d) Increase in the ability to communicate with others and develop community behavior
5.       The first domesticated animal by primitive man was
a) Cat                            b) Cow                  c) Dog                   d) Horse
6. Which of the following is a living fossil?
      a) Mirabilis Jalapa       b) Ginkgo Biloba               c) Pinus Longifolia            d) Dalbergia Sissoo
7.   Reason of diversity in living being is
       a) Mutation                 b) Long term evolutionary change           c) Gradual change            d) Short term evolutionary change
8. 1st life on earth was
      a) Cyanobacteria        b) Chemohetrotrophs   c) Autotrophs    d) Photoautotrophs
9. There is no life on the moon due to the absence of
      a) O2                                b) Water              c) Light                  d) Temperature
10. Darwin in his “Natural selection Theory” did not believe in any role of which one of the following in organic evolution?
      a) Parasites and predators as natural enemies              b) Survival of the fittest                                c) Struggle for existence                      d) Discontinuous variations
11. Which one of the following phenomena supports Darwin’s concept of natural selection in organic evolution?
      a) Development of transgenic animals             b) Production of ‘Dolly’, the sheep by cloning     c) Prevalence of pesticide resistant insects       d) Development of organs from ‘stem cells’ for organ transplantation
12. Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggest that these species
      a) Are evolving into the same species                               b) Contain identical DNA             c) May have similar evolutionary histories              d) Have the same number of mutations
13. The theory that evolutionary change is slow and continuous is known as
      a) Punctuated equilibrium     b) Geographic isolation                 c) Speciation      d) Gradualism
14. The concept that species have changed over long periods of time is known as
      a) Ecology      b) Embryology                   c) Spontaneous generation         d) Organic evolution
15. Which group of organisms is believed to be among the earliest to evolve on Earth?
      a) Arthropods              b) Coelenterates              c) Protozoans                    d) Reptiles
16. Which concept was not included in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
      a) Survival of the fittest           b) Struggle for existence              c) Overproduction of offspring                  d) Punctuated equilibrium
17. Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the concept of
      a) Use and disuse      b) Mutations      c) Natural selection        d) Hybridization
18. Antibiotic resistance can
      a) Inherent   b) Acquired        c) Either be inherent nor be acquired    d) Both
19. Acquired resistance occurs when a bacterium that was originally sensitive to an antibiotic develops
      a) Resistance               b) Attraction      c) Both                  d) None of these
20. Which of the following inhibits DNA gyrase?
      a) Pencillin                    b) Trimethoprim               c) Chloramphenicol         d) Ciprofloxacin
21. Regarding the “azole” group of antifungals
      a) Fluconazole has low water solubility             b) Ketoconazole may be given IV/PO      c)Intraconazole undergoes renal elimination                        d) They work by reduction of ergosterol synthesis by inhibition of fungal cytochrome P450 enzymes
22. Which of the following is a second generation cephalosporin?
      a) Ceftazidime                             b) Cephalothin                  c) Cefotaxime                    d) Cefaclor
23. The cephalosporin with the highest activity against gram positive cocci is
      a) Cefaclor                    b) Cephalothin                 c) Cefuroxime                   d) Cefaclor
24. Which of the following is considered to be bacteriostatic?
      a) Pencillin                    b) Chloramphenicol       c) Ciprofloxacin                 d) Cefoxitin
25. Half-life of amphotericin B is
      a) 2 seconds                 b) 20 minutes                    c) 2 hours            d) 2 weeks
26. Soap and detergents are the source of organic pollutants like;
      a) A glycerol                 b) Polyphosphates          c) Sulphonated hydrocarbons    d) None of these
27. Soap is a salt of a
      a) Fatty acid                 b) Amino acid                    c) Citric acid                        d) None of these
28. Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for
      a) Washing                    b) Bathing           c) Cleaning          d) All the above
29. Soap in used in
      a) Textile spinning     b) Lubricants      c) Both                  d) None of these
30. Fats and oils are composed of
      a) Triglycerides                           b) Glycosides                     c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
31. Term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively to soaps made with
      a) Sodium carbonate                                b) Sodium hydroxide     c) Sodium peroxide         d) None of these
32. The soap has history going back as far as --- thousand years
      a) 4                   b) 5                        c) 6         d) 3
33. The earliest known soap recipe is credited to the ancient Babylonians
      a) 3800 B.C                    b) 2400 B.C          c) 2500 B.C.         d) 2800 B.C.
34. Throughout history soap was medically used for treatment of
      a) Skin diseases          b) Liver diseases               c) Heart diseases              d) Eye diseases
35. Common soap bars were invented in the
      a) 16th Century            b) 17th century                   c) 19th century                   d) 18th century
36. The first soap was discovered almost --- years ago.
      a) 4000            b) 5000                 c) 2000                  d) 3000
37. The first soap was discovered in ancient
      a) Babylonia                 b) Greece                            c) Rome               d) All the above
38. The first soap was discovered by mixing
a) Animal fats                              b) Wood ash                      c) Water               d) All the above
39. The first soaps were used in the
a) Textile industry                      b) Skin diseases                                c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
40. Liquid soaps are formulated for cleaning the
a) Body                           b) Feature skin conditioners       c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
41. Heavy duty hand cleaners are available as
a) Bars                            b) Liquids             c) Powers            d) all the above
42. Bluing absorbs the --- part of the light spectrum
a) Yellow       b) Red                   c) Green              d) None of these
 43. Boosters enhance the
a) Soil and stain removal         b) Brightening                   c) Buffering        d) All the above
44. Enzyme presoaks are used for soaking items before washing to
a) Difficult stains         b) soils                  c) Both                  d) None of these
45. Fabric softeners impact a
a) Pleasing fragrance                                b) Make ironing easier                   c) both a and b                  d) None of these
46. Dishwashing products include detergents for
      a) Hand                          b) Machine dishwashing               c) Specialty products      d) All the above
47. Glass cleaners – oily soils found on glass, and dry quickly without streaking.
      a) Loosen      b) Dissolve          c) Both a and b                  d) None of these
48. Drain openers --- kitchen and bathroom drains.
      a) Unclog       b) Clog                  c) Block                 d) None of these
49. Creation of automatic dishwasher powders, fabric softeners
      a) 1950s          b) 1960s                               c) 1970s                d) 1980s
50. Prewash stain removers, enzyme presoaks
      a) 1950s          b) 1960s                               c) 1970s                d) 1980s
51. Multifunctional products (detergent + softener), liquid soaps
      a) 1950s          b) 1960s                               c) 1970s                d) 1980s
52. Polymers are large molecules composed of --- chemical units.
      a) Repeated b) Enhanced       c) Less                   d) None of these
53. The smallest repeating unit is called a
      a) Mer                            b)MM                   c)CM                     d) None of these
54. The term polymer is derived from the --- words
      a) Greek        b) Latin                 c) American        d) None of these
55. Mers meaning ---
      a) Many parts                              b) Less parts                       c) Small parts                     d) None of these
56. Who announced in 1907 the synthesis of the first truly synthetic polymeric material?
      a) Leo Baekeland       b) Goodyear                      c) Darwin             d) None of these
57. First truly synthetic polymeric material
      a) Bakelite    b) Neoprene                      c) Nylon               d) PVC
58. Who found that acetylene could be made to add to itself forming dimers and trimers.
      a) Julius A. Nieuwland                            b) Goodyear      c) Darwin             d) None of these
59. Neoprene was found by
      a) Goodyear                 b) Amold Collins               c) Darwin             d) None of these
60. Nylon was found by
      a) Dupont      b) Goodyear      c) Darwin             d) None
61. PVC was initially formed by German chemist --- in 1872,
      a) Eugen Baumann    b) Goodyear      c) Darwin             d) None of these
62. Polystyrene was        probably first formed by German apothecary
      a) B. F. Goodrich         b) Goodyear      c) Eduard Simon               d) None of these
63. Polystyrere was probably first formed by German apothecary in
      a) 1829                            b) 1849                 c) 1839                  d)1859
64. Various uses of polymers are:
      a) Elastomers                               b) Plastics            c) Fibers               d) all the above
65. Rubber is the most important of all elastomers.
      a) Elastomers              b) Plastics            c) Fibers               d) all the above
66. – is used to extract metals like thorium, vanadium and zirconium from their compounds by displacement reactions, a deoxidizers
      a) Calcium     b) Calcium Carbonate                     c) Alcohols                          d) Alkenes
67. Is a synthetic narcotic used legally to treat addiction to narcotics and relieve severe pain?
      a) Methadone             b) Crack cocaine               c) Powdered cocaine      d) none of these
68. Atomic energy carried by
      a) Atoms        b) Protons           c) Electrons         d) None of these
69. The term atom was popularized by
      a) Ernest Rutherford                b) H. G Wells                     c) Darwin             d) None of these
70. One of the well-known elements used in nuclear fission is
      a) 235U           b) 245U                                c) 225U                 d) 135U
71. The main design is the pressurized water reactor (PWR) which has water at over
      a) 300OC         b) 200OC               c) 400OC               d) 500OC
72. Which statement best describes the structure of an atom?
      a) A positive core surrounded by electrons packed tightly around it
      b) A particle comprised of a mixture of protons, electrons and neutrons
      c) A tiny nucleus of protons and neutrons with electrons orbiting around it
      d) A large core of protons and electrons surrounded by neutrons
73. Thermal neutrons have energy around
      a) 100ev         b) 10ev                 c) 1ev                    d) all the above
74. Moderators are used in the nuclear reactors to
      a) Generate neutrons              b) Absorb neutrons        c) To slow down the neutrons   d) Produce neutrons
75. Cadmium rods are used in a nuclear reactor to
      a) Generate neutrons              b) Absorb neutrons        c) To slow down neutrons            d) Produce neutrons
76. In the nuclear reactor at Trombay which of the following is used as moderator
       a) Ordinary water     b) Cadmium       c) Copper            d) Heavy water
77. Which of the following is the best nuclear fuel?
      a) Neptunium 293      b) Plutonium 239             c) Uranium 236  d) Thorium 236

     
Unit III - MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1.       Agriculture, along with the fisheries and forestry, account for _____ of the nation’s GDP and is its single largest contributors.
a)      One third      b) two third       c) half     d) one
2.       Agricultural export constitutes a ________ of the total export of the country.
a)      2nd        b) 3rd           c) 5th           d) 4th
3.       NDDB means
a)      National daily development board
b)      National dairy development board
c)       National dairy developing board
d)      National development dairy board
4.       With an annual output of 130 MT, _____ is the largest producer of the milk in the world.
a)      India       b)  China    c)  Japan      d) None
5.       In 2013-14 India achieved  a record food grain production of
a)      254 MT     b)   264 MT     c) 269 MT     d) 274 MT
6.       DES means
a)      Directorate of economics and statistics    b) Directorate of ecology and statistics   c) Directorate of ergonomics and   statistics     d) None
7.       Which sector is the backbone of Indian economy?
a)      Service sector     b) Financial sector   c) Tourism sector     d) Agricultural sector
8.       Who announced the introduction of National Food Security act?
a)      Pranab Mukherjee     b) Manmohan Singh    c) P. Chidambaram    d) Arun jaitley
9.       When NFSM launched?
a)      Mid of 9th five year plan       b) End of 10th five year plan    c) mid  of 11th five year plan     d) End of 11th five year plan
10.   Who announced the launched of rashtriya krishi vikas yojana ?
a)      Narendra Modi       b) Dr. Manmohan Singh     c) Atal Bihari Vajpayee   d) I.K Gujral
11.   Which among the following does not belong to welfare schemes for the farmers?
a)      Kisan credit card scheme              b) SHG Bank Linkage Programme              c) National Agricultural Insurance Scheme                d) Employee Referral Scheme
12.   When did the government present Kisan credit card scheme?
a)      April 1853            b) August 1998                  c) July 1991         d) November 1995
13.   When was ‘On Farm Management Scheme’ launched?
a)      July 2000              b) March 2002                   c) March 2004                    d) January 2004
14.   When was ‘Micro Irrigation’ launched?
a)      March 2002         b) March 2004                   c) January 2004                 d) January 2006
15.   The Blue Revolution is related with?
a)      Fish production                                b) Food grain production              c) Oilseed production                     d)Milk production
16.   Indian agriculture is typically characterized as …
a)      Land surplus, labor scare economy          b) Land surplus, labor surplus economy                 c) Land scare, labor surplus economy                             d) Land scare, labor scare economy
17.   Dr. M. S Swaminathan has distinguished himself in which of the following fields?
a)      Nuclear physics                 b) Agriculture                    c) Astrophysics                  d) Medicine
18.   The Green Revolution in India was the outcome of the efforts of who amongst the following?
a)      M. S. Swaminathan         b) C. Rangarajan               c) K.V Kamath                    d) Rakesh Mohan
19.   The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was established in the year…
a) 1970                          b) 1975                                 c) 1977                                  d) 1982
20. The head office of the NABARD is located in?
        a) Lucknow                 b) Hyderabad                    c) New Delhi                      d) Mumbai
21. Where is the central rice research institute located?
        a) Bangalore               b) Kanpur            c) Coimbatore                   d) Cuttack
22. NABARD was established in the …
        a) Fourth Five year plan        b) Fifth Five year plan                    c) Sixth Five year plan                   d) Eighth Five year plan
23. Who is known as Father of White Revolution in India?
        a) M. S. Swaminathan            b) V. Kurien        c) K.N Bahal        d) B.P. Pal
24. Which is the highest food grain producing Indian state, as per 2013-2014?
        a) Madhya Pradesh                 b) Punjab            c) Uttar Pradesh               d) Maharastra
25. Which is the highest coarse cereal producing Indian state, as per 2013-2014?
        a) Karnataka               b) Maharastra                   c) Rajasthan       d) Uttar Pradesh
26. Which Indian state has the largest area irrigated by water tanks, as 2013-14?
        a) Andhra Pradesh  b) Karnataka      c) Tamilnadu      d) Uttar Pradesh
27. Which is the biggest milk plant in India?
        a) Verka milk plant                  b) Mother Diary                               c) Burnett Diary                                d) Lorenae Diary
28. Which of the following is a human made input of agriculture?
        a) Relief of the land                                b) Irrigation Facilities                    c) Earthworms                   d) Crops
29.  Which is also known as the golden fiber?
        a) Cotton                     b) Wheat             c) Silk                     d) Jute
30. The two most important staple food crops of the world are – and ---
        a) Ragi & Bajra           b) Tea & Coffee                                c) Rice & wheat                                d) Milets & Maize
31. It is also known as “Monoculture”, i.e. single crop grown over a large area.
        a) Commercial Grain Farming              b) Plantation farming                    c) Multiple Farming         d) Mixed farming
32. In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of --- are grown in a year known as “Aus, Aman and Boro”.
        a) Paddy                      b) wheat              c) Pulses              d) Maize
33. Which one is not a millet crop?
        a) Jowar                       b) Ragi                  c) Wheat             d) Bajra
34. The word ‘Agriculture’ has been derived from two … words
        a) German                  b) American                       c) Latin                 d) Arabic
35. Cultivation of the grapes is also known as ….
        a) Viticulture             b) Horticulture                  c) Sericulture                     d) Pisciculture
36.  The term white revolution refers to the
        a) Increased production of food grains           b) Increased production of Milk                               c) Increased production of eggs  d) Increased production of Fish
37.  Who was the father of Operation Flood?
        a) Dr. Norman Borlaug           b) Dr. M. S. Swaminathan             c) Dr. Verghese Kurien                  d) Dr. William Gande
38. Which state is the biggest tea producer in the country?
        a) Andhra Pradesh                  b) Sikkim              c) Assam              d) West Bengal
39. Which is not a Kharif Crop?
        a) Jowar                       b) Maize              c) Groundnut                     d) Wheat
40. When a community development program (CDP) started?
        a) 1952          b) 1953                 c) 1954                  d)  1955
41. Green revolution started in
        a) 1964-65                   b) 1965-66           c) 1966-67            d) 1967-68
42. White revolution is associated with
        a) Milk                          b) Milk products                               c) Both                                  d) None
43. The gene revolution is the application of --- in food production.
        a) Bio-technology                    b) Technology                   c) Both                  d) None
44. The information revolution began with the invention of the...
        a) Integrated circuit                                b) Computers                    c) both                  d) none
45. The information revolution started around
        a) 1000 BC                   b) 2000 BC           c) 3000 BC            d) 4000 BC
46. The information revolution started around 3000 BC with the --- pictographs.
        a) Sumerian                               b) American                       c) Indian               d) Chinese
47. The WWW means that
        a) World Wide Web                               b) World Work Web                        c) Both                  d) None
48. Internet works on
        a) Packet switching                 b) Circuit switching          c) Both                  d) None
49. Which one of the following is not an application layer protocol used in internet?
        a) Remote procedure call                     b) Internet relay chat                     c) Resource reservation protocol             d) None of these
50. Which protocol assigns IP address to the client connected in the internet?
        a) DHCP       b) IP       c) RPC                   d) None
51. Which one of the following is not used in media access control?
        a) Ethernet                 b) Digital subscriber line                                c) Fiber distributed data interface            d) none
52. TCP/IP is a:
        a) Network hardware            b) Network software     c) Protocol          d) None
53. OSI stands for:
        a) Open system Interface    b) Out System Interface                               c) Open System Interconnection              d) Out System Interconnection
54. TCP/IP mainly used for:
        a) File Transfer          b) Email                c) Remote Login Service                                d) All the above
55. IPX/SPX used for:
        a) Linux                        b) Unix                 c) Novel Net ware           d) Windows
56.  NetBIOS is developed by:
        a) Microsoft               d) IBM                  c) Sun                    d) None
57. Which network architecture is developed by IBM?
        a) System Network Architecture      b) Digital Network Architecture                 c) Boroughs Network Architecture        d) Distributed Network Architecture      
58. Which is the lowest layer of TCP/IP model?
        a) Host to Host Layer              b) Network Access Layers            c) Internet Layer              d) application Layer
59. The most common method for gaining access to the Internet is through a ---
        a) Dump terminal                     b) Virtual provider or computer                 c) Point-to-point computer         d) Provider or host computer
60. The term ISP refers to
        a) Internal software protocol              b) International Shareware pool                               c) Internet service provider        d) Interface standard protocol
61. The extensions .gov, .edu, .mil and .net are called
        a) DNAs        b) E-mail targets               c) Domain codes              d) Mail to address
62. URL is an acronym for ---
        a) Uniform Resource Locator              b) Uniform Resource Link             c) Universal Reference Locator                  d) Unlimited Real-time Language
63. When surfing the web, the browser interprets the HTML command found in a document file, and displays it as a(n)
        a) Applet page          b) Java page       c) Web page      d) Domain page
64. HTML is an acronym for –
        a) Hyperlink Markup Language          b) Hypertext markup Language                 c) Hypertext Markup Link             d) Hypertext Modern Language
65. Connections to other documents or to other locations within a website are
        a) Filters       b) hyperlinks     c) plug-ins           d) bots
66. Hyperlinks in a Web document typically appear as
        a) Bolded and underlined                     b) Italicized and underlined         c) Underlined and colored          d) Bolded and italicized
67. Applets are typically written in a programming language called
        a) XML          b) Basic                 c) Pascal               d) Java
68. Which of the following are not required in order to send and receive e-mail?
        a) Email account       b) Web page                      c) Access to the Internet              d) E-mail program
69. Which of the following is not one of basic elements of an e-mail message?
        a) Header    b) Footer             c) Message         d) Signature
70. An internet standard for transferring files is known as
        a) IRC            b) Telnet              c) FTP                    d) WAIS
71. A(n) --- can be used to block access to specific sites.
        a) Filter        b) Hardware block           c) Censor             d) Rubicon
72. Which of the following is a non-renewable resource?
        a) Coal          b) Forests            c) Water               d) Wildlife
73. Which among the following is not a renewable source of energy?
        a) Solar Energy          b) Biomass energy          c) Hydro-power                                d) Geothermal energy
74. Identify the non-renewable energy resource from the following…
        a) Coal          b) Fuel cells        c) Wind power  d) Wave power
75. Which of the following is a disadvantage of most of the renewable energy sources?
        a) Highly polluting    b) High waste disposal cost          c) Unreliable supply       d) High running cost
76. Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into:
        a) Chemical energy                 b) Biogas              c) Electricity        d) geothermal energy
77. Which among the following is not an adverse environmental impact of tidal power generation?
        a) Interference with spawning and migration of fish
        b) Pollution and health hazard in the estuary due to blockage of flow of polluted water into the sea
        c) Navigational hazard            d) None
78. A fuel cell, in order to produce electricity, burns:
        a) Helium                     b) Nitrogen         c) Hydrogen       d) None
79. Fuel cells are;                             
        a) Carbon cell             b) Hydrogen battery      c) Nuclear cell                    d) Chromium cell
80. A module is a:
        a) Series-arrangement of solar cells                 b) Parallel arrangement of solar cells
        c) Series-parallel arrangement of solar cells                               d) None
81. The efficiency of solar cells is about:
        a) 25%                           b) 15%                  c) 40                       d) 60%
82. Which of the following area is preferred for solar power plants?
        a) Coastal areas        b) Hot, arid zones            c) Mountain tops             d) High rainfall zones
83. Which power plant is free from environmental pollution problems?
        a) Thermal power plant         b) Nuclear power plant                 c) Hydro-power plant                    d) Geothermal energy power plant
84. Climate change is primarily caused by the building up of --- in the atmosphere.
        a) Greenhouse gases             b) CO2                   c) Nitrogen                         d) None
85. The global increase of methane and nitrous oxide are primarily due to
        a) Agriculture            b) Industries      c) Soil erosion                    d) None
86. Global warming is a specific example of the broader term
        a) Climate change   b) environment change                                c) Health change              d) None
87. The observed increase in the average temperature of the air near earth’s surface and oceans in recent decades
        a) Environment change         b) Global warming          c) Health change              d) None
88. The first known use of wind power was in
        a) 6000 BC                   b) 4000 BC                           c) 5000 BC            d) 3000BC
1. How many matched chromosomes does a mature ovum contain?
A. 43                            B. 46              C. 23               D. 22
2. Which are the chemical substances that facilitate direct communication between neurons?
A. Neurohonnones                              B. Neuromodulators
C. Neurotransmitters                        D. Neuro peptides
3. The study of the nature of knowledge is called
A. Epistemology                    B. Epiphenomenalism
C. Empiricism                         D. Euphemistic labeling
4. Insomnia is a characteristic feature of
A. Schizophrenia                     B. Depression
C. Epilepsy                              D. Psychosis
5. It is a situation that occurs when stimuli or events increase the availability in memory or consciousness of specific types of information held in memory-
A. Association                                    B. Mnemonics
C. Cognition                                       D. Priming
 6. In 1900 Max Planck discovers …
A. Quanta - the basis of quantum theory    B. Telegraph Signal     C. Radio          D. Television
7. In 1901 Guglielmo Marconi in Newfoundland receives the first telegraph signal, sent from Cornwall in Great Britain…
A. Quanta - the basis of quantum theory        B. Telegraph Signal  C. Radio          D. Television
8. In 1903 The Wright brothers successfully demonstrated ….
A. Motor powered flight       B. Satellite      C. Radio          D. Television
9. During which of the following year Albert Einstein publishes the ‘Special Theory of Relativity’?
            A. 1910           B. 1905           C. 1920           D. 1915
10. Which of the following was the invention of Paul Ehrlich during 1909?
A. Sickle Cell disease B. Antibiotic              c. Vaccination             D. Finds a cure for syphilis disease
11. Who discovered the structure of the atom in 1913?
            A. Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford                     B. Einstein      C. Marconi      D. Galileo
12. Who invented the moving assembly line for mass production of automobiles in 1913?
A. Planck        B. Henry Ford                       C. Bohr           D. Rutherford
13. Which of the following year Household appliances appear - the vacuum cleaner, electric shaver, spin dryer, electric refrigerator, frozen foods, speaker radio?
            A. 1920's         B. 1930’s         C. 1940’s         D.1950’s
14. During 1922 --- was discovered by Frederick Banting and Charles Best?
A.  Insulin      B. Antibiotic   C. Vaccination                        D. Sickle cell disease
15. Which of the following item was discovered in 1923 by Vladimir Zworykin?
A. television    B. television camera  C. Radio          D. Telephone
16. Who discovered the first new galaxy besides our own in 1924?
A. Frederick    B. Logie          C. Bohr           D. Edwin Hubble
17. Who made the first television broadcast over radio waves in 1926?
            A. Frederick                B. Edwin Hubble        C. Logie          D. John Logie Baird
18. Pencillin G destroys few species of bacteria whereas, --- is an effective Antibiotic against wide range of organism.
a) Tetracycline           a)Daptomycin c) Linezolid     d) None
19. Which of the following diseases should not be treated with antibiotics/
      a) Respiratory Illness in children  b) Ear infections and Eczema c) sinusitis       d) All the above
20. Which of the following is said to be a type of plastic?
      a) Thermoplastics  b) Thermosets  c) Both                       d) None
21. Detergent contains which of the following chemicals in it?
      a) Phosphates and acids    b) Cationic      c) Anionic       d) All the above
22. Which of following metal compound for the displacement reaction we use calcium?
      a) Thorium             b) Vanadium               c) Zirconium    d) All the above
23. Which of the following chemical is used in the preparation iron, steel and cement/
      a) Calcium             b) Calcium Carbonate                      c) Ammonia    d) All the above
24. Which of the following chemical is used in fertilizers/
      a) Ammonia and Ammonium Salts          b) Calcium     c) Calcium Carbonate d) None

1927 Georges Lemaitre puts forward Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe

1929 Edwin Hubble puts forward the theory of the expanding universe

1931 Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron to study the behavior of accelerated atomic particles

1932 James Chadwick describes the nucleus of the atom as composed of protons and neutrons

1935 Invention of nylon and plastics - the first nylon stockings

1942 Enrico Fermi demonstrates the first controlled nuclear reaction

1945 The first atomic bomb is detonated in New Mexico. Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan a month later.
1945 The first electronic computer - The Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC) - is demonstrated.
1947 William Shockley invents the transistor

1948 Percy Julian develops synthetic cortisone

1950 Gertrude Elion develops chemotherapy to treat leukaemia

1952 Jonas Salk produces a vaccine against poliomyelitis

1952 Henri Laborit's discovery of chlorpromazine founds the basis for drug therapies to treat mental illness

1953 James Watson and Francis Crick, with the contribution of Rosalind Franklin and others, discover the double helix structure of DNA, the building block of life

1960 Peter Medawar discovers basis of immuno-suppression

1960 Stephen Hawking publishes his Grand Unified Theory of the origin of the universe

1960s Discovery of restriction enzymes - the 'scissors' used to splice genes in genetic engineering

1961 The Soviet Union puts the first astronaut into orbit around the Earth

1964 Murray Gell-Man predicts the existence of quarks

1967 Christiaan Barnard carries out first human heart transplant

1967 Jocelyn Bell identifies pulsars (neutron stars)

1969 Dorothy Hodgkin describes the molecular structure of insulin

1970’s computerized tomography (CT scan) to look at soft tissues

1970s Some US university campuses linked by a computer network, ARPAnet

1971 Gilbert Hyatt and Intel make the first commercial computer microprocessor

1975 Discovery of endorphins - natural pain killers in the brain

1975 Cesar Milstein and co-workers develop monoclonal antibodies, the 'magic bullets' that can seek out specific antigens and therefore disease-causing organisms

1980s Discovery of prions, a new class of infectious agents unlike viruses. A prion causes Bovine Spongiform Encephaly or 'mad cow disease'

1983 Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

1987 Discovery of fluoxetine (Prozac) as a therapy for depression

1990 Tim Berners-Lee, a consultant at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, along with his colleague Robert Cailliau author software that gave birth of the World Wide Web

1996 'Dolly' the sheep is born in Scotland. She was produced by cloning a single mammary cell

1997 Scientists accurately predict the El Niño climatic phenomenon in the tropical Pacific, greatly reducing the social and economic effects of the floods and droughts that follow in many parts of the world.


Chemical Abuse and its Effect
Methadone – It is a synthetic narcotic used to treat addiction. Over dose symptoms includes respiratory depression, decrease heart rate, coma and death.
Crack Cocaine- Highly addictive and over use of it leads to aggressive and paranoid behavior, respiratory problem, lung trauma, bleeding and seizure and cardiac arrest.
Powdered Cocaine – Over use of it affects individuals with restless, irritable, anxious, increased temperature, heart attack, respiratory failure, stroke and seizure.
Heroin, Dxm, Dextromethorphan, Depressants, Stimulants, Narcotics and Inhalants may also cause lot of side effects.
Atomic energy
The nuclear fission of heavy elements is highly exothermic and releases about 200 million eV.
 Chernobyl is the accident occurred during an experiment with radioactive material.
Space Sciences
1957 Soviets launched first artificial satellite Sputnik 1 into space.
Russian Lt. Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit Earth in Vostok 1.
The first U.S satellite Explorer 1 went orbit in 1958.
In 1962 John Glenn’s historic flight made the first American to orbit the Earth.
Skylab is the first America’s space station.
Mariner spacecraft was orbiting and mapping the surface of Mars.
Voyager spacecraft have sent the images of Jupiter and Saturn and their rings and moons.
National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Department of Defense (DoD)
National Geospatial Intelligence (NGA)
Missile Defense Agency (MDA)
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
Missile Defense agency (MDA)
National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)
U.S Strategic Command (USSTRACTCOM)
Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC)
Air Force space Command (AFSPC)
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
Geosynchorous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)
National Natural Resources Management System (NMRMS)
Department of space (DOS)
Genetics
Multiple genes and their relationships with one another is said to be Genomics.
Relationship between genes and the environments is termed as epigenetics.
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic
DNA consists of four chemical bases: Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).
Nucleotide has jointly a base sugar and phosphate.
Nanotechnology
Nano sized materials in the range of 0.1 nanometer to 100nm is said to be nano sized materials.
Applications of nano technology
Nanomedicine
Nanobiotechnology
Green nano technology
Energy applications of nanotechnology
Industrial applications of nanotechnology
Drug delivery


Fabrics
Reactivity of Materials
Strength of Materials
Micro/Nano electro mechanical systems
Smart Materials
Shape memory alloys – Hot water valves in the coffee machine and water sprinklers in the fire systems
Piezoelectric materials – used for contact sensors for alarm systems and in microphone and headphone
Quantum tunneling composite – membrane switches used in mobile phones, pressure sensors and speed controllers
Electroluminescent materials – give out light when an electric current is applied to them
Color-change materials – Thermochromic materials change color as the temperature changes.
Internet Technology
 www – World Wide web
TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
IP – Internet Protocol
Spamming – Unwanted bulk e-mails
Virus – Disrupts the normal functioning of computer systems
Pornography – Biggest threat related to mental health related life
Document Type Definition – DTD
HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language
XML – Extended Markup Language
SGML – Standard Generalized Markup Language
CGI – Common Gateway Interface
SSI – Server Side Includes
PHP – Scripting Language
MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
GIF – Graphics File Format
IAB – Internet Architecture Board
IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IESG – Internet Engineering Task Force
InterNIC-Internet Network  Centre
IRTF-Internet Research Task Force
ISOC-Internet Society
ISTF-Internet Social Task Force
W3C-World Wide Wen Consortium
OASIS-Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
IRT – Internet Related Technologies
HTTP-Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Computer Vision Syndrome – Eyestrain, Tired Eys, Irritation, Blurred Vision, Double Vision
Isnomia – Working into the evening increases the level of Melatonin that leads to sleep disturbances.
Repetitive Stress Injuries – Injured cells releases substances called cytokines that travel through the bloodstream
Hearing Damage -   Increase in Noise level above 85 decibels destroys cells in the inner ear.
Printers shoot out invisible particles into air that lodges in the lungs and leads to Asthma.
INAPC-Indian National Active Place for Climate
UNFCC- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


Copernicus Galileo Kepler
(Heliocentric system)The birth of modern astronomy

Galileo-Experimental observations as the basis for science
The birth of modern astronomy


The Renaissance and its significance
•Leonardo Da Vinci
•Galileo
•Flowering of Art and Science


Galilean refractor being displayed in Venice
Rene Descartes
17thCentury
Cartesian Dualism (in “Discourse on the Method”)-Separation of mind and matter
Possible to know about the world through deductive reasoning alone.
 Analytical Geometry developed by him
Reductionism
Descarte’s proposal that for any matter living or non living ( except humans) one could study the system as if it is composed of different working mechanical parts. Conceiving the universe as a giant “clockwork mechanism”

Other periods in history important for science
Age of Enlightenment (18th Century)
Importance of reason, analysis over traditional figures of authority
The industrial revolution and technology for mass production (19th century)

What is Science? ––Verifiability OR FalsifiabilityVerifiability Falsifiability
•Positivistview of scientific method-Verifiability is an important criterion
•Karl Popper-Not verifiability but rather falsifiable statements useful in science
•Example-Assertion that “all crows are black” is in practice non verifiable since we can never be sure that we have looked at the complete set of crows that exist or will exist
•On the other hand even one counter example of a non black crow can make the above statement false
•Also tautologies such as “ A crow is a bird that is black” has no value

What is Science? (Accepted view of a scientific method)

Science in non-western cultures
•Mathematics/Astronomy in ancient India
•Vyakarana-Panini
•Medicine/ Surgery ( Charaka, Sushruta)
•Metallurgy ( Damascus steel, Iron smelting, coins)
•Hindu/Arabic numerals


Pre Final Exam
1. How many matched chromosomes does a mature ovum contain?
A. 43                            B. 46              C. 23               D. 22
2. Which are the chemical substances that facilitate direct communication between neurons?
A. Neurohonnones                              B. Neuromodulators
C. Neurotransmitters                        D. Neuro peptides
3. The study of the nature of knowledge is called
A. Epistemology                    B. Epiphenomenalism
C. Empiricism                         D. Euphemistic labeling
4. Insomnia is a characteristic feature of
A. Schizophrenia                     B. Depression
C. Epilepsy                              D. Psychosis
5. It is a situation that occurs when stimuli or events increase the availability in memory or consciousness of specific types of information held in memory-
A. Association                                    B. Mnemonics
C. Cognition                                       D. Priming
 6. In 1900 Max Planck discovers …
A. Quanta - the basis of quantum theory    B. Telegraph Signal     C. Radio          D. Television

7. In 1901 Guglielmo Marconi in Newfoundland receives the first telegraph signal, sent from Cornwall in Great Britain…
A. Quanta - the basis of quantum theory        B. Telegraph Signal  C. Radio          D. Television
8. In 1903 The Wright brothers successfully demonstrated ….
A. Motor powered flight       B. Satellite      C. Radio          D. Television
9. During which of the following year Albert Einstein publishes the ‘Special Theory of Relativity’?
            A. 1910           B. 1905           C. 1920           D. 1915
10. Which of the following was the invention of Paul Ehrlich during 1909?
A. Sickle Cell disease B. Antibiotic              c. Vaccination             D. Finds a cure for syphilis disease
11. Who discovered the structure of the atom in 1913?
            A. Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford                     B. Einstein      C. Marconi      D. Galileo
12. Who invented the moving assembly line for mass production of automobiles in 1913?
A. Planck        B. Henry Ford           C. Bohr           D. Rutherford
13. Which of the following year Household appliances appear - the vacuum cleaner, electric shaver, spin dryer, electric refrigerator, frozen foods, speaker radio?
            A. 1920's         B. 1930’s         C. 1940’s         D.1950’s
14. During 1922 --- was discovered Frederick Banting and Charles Best?
A.  Insulin      B. Antibiotic   C. Vaccination                        D. Sickle cell disease
15. Which of the following item was discovered in 1923 by Vladimir Zworykin?
A. television    B. television camera  C. Radio          D. Telephone
16. Who discovered the first new galaxy besides our own in 1924?
A. Frederick    B. Logie          C. Bohr           D. Edwin Hubble
17. Who made the first television broadcast over radio waves in 1926?
            A. Frederick                B. Edwin Hubble        C. Logie          D. John Logie Baird
18. The first Renaissance scientist was a man named ---------
A. Nicolaus Copernicus  B. Galileo Galilei  C. Johannes Kepler     D. Isacc Newton
19. Which is following fact true about Nicolaus Copernicus theory on planet earth?
A. Earth is not the center of the universe
B. Earth is the center of gravity and the lunar sphere
C. Earth’s motions include rotation, revolution, and annual orientation/tilting of the axis
D. All the above
20. The heliocentric model of Copernicus theory states about.
A. Earth Centered Universe  B. Sun Centered Universe     C. Both           D. None
21. Which is the fact true about ‘Sun Centered Universe’?
A. The only planets known and found were Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn
B. All the planets were orbiting around the Sun
C. Moon ignored the Sun’s orbit and orbited around the Earth’s orbit
D. All the above
22. Who proposed that the earth rotates daily and revolves around the sun?
    A. Archimedes       B. Pythagoreans          C. Galileo Galilei                    D. Johannes Kepler
23. DNA without introns is
    A. B-DNA       B. Z-DNA     C. Nuclear DNA       D. Mitochondrial DNA
24. Largest and the most developed part of the human brain is
   A. Cerebellum   B.  Forebrain   c. Hypothalamus   D. Midbrain
25. Science is __________________ activity.
    A. Individual        B. Social            C. Mandatory       D. None of the above
26. _________________is American author and professor of Biochemistry.
  A. J.F Nash   B. Issac Newton         C. Charles Darwin             D. Issac Asimov
27. _________________ is the biggest satellite of solar system
   A. Ganymede          B. Tollymede              C. Satranus                         D. None of the above
28. What is the maximum speed possible for any wave in the solar system?
A. Every wave can have its own speed
B. Speed of light
C. Speed of electron
D. None of the above
29. _______________ is the father of nuclear Physics.
   A. Faraday               B. W.L Bragg     C. Chadwick                   D. Rutherford
30. Mendel worked on ____________ plant.
  A. Ground nut          B. Cashew nut            C. Pea plant                        D. Tea-plant
31. The phenomenon of light to change its wavelength when it transverses a transparent material is called
  A. Photo electric effect         B. Raman Effect         C. Dispersion                        D. Theory of relativity
32. Study of earth’s atmosphere is called ____________
  A. Physiology                       B. Astronomy             C. Hydrology                      D. Meteorology
33. Cosmology is a study of
   A. Religion               B. Universe                C. Skin                        D. None of the above
34. ______________________ is a statement that we assume is true
   A. Logic       B. Hypothesis             C. Inference    D. Axiom
35. _______________________ introduced scientific method
   A. Isaac Newton      B. Francis Bacon       C. Albert Einstein       D. Charles Darwin
36. Knowledge from experience or experiments is called _____________ Knowledge.
A. Hypothesis                         B. Inference
C. Theorem                 D. Empirical
Answer: D
37. E=mc2 is an equation to prove
A. Photo electric effect           B. Radio activity
C. Brownian motion               D. Theory of relativity
Answer: D
38. Inexorable means
A. Unchanging            B. Changing
C. Relative                  D. Destructive
Answer: A
39. Primitive observer defined natural phenomenon as activity of
A. Super natural forces           B. Humans
C. Machines                            D. None of the above
Answer: A
40. Feudalism was replaced by…………………….
A. Humanities                         B. scientific revolution
C. Religion                              D. Ideology
Answer: B
41. Science and Technology in Ancient India is a work by……….
A. Joseph Needhan                 B. D.P Chattopadhyaya
C. Sushil Kanar Mukherjee     D. John Bernal
Answer: B
42.……………..is classical age of Indian science.
A. 300-600 AD                       B. 700-1200 AD
C. 400-900 A.D                      D. 900-1200AD
Answer: C
43. Greeks are to thank…………………for their scientific tradition
A. Babylonians                       B. Egyptians
C. Indians                               D. Both (a) and (b)
Answer: D
44. Arthur Schopenhauer is a ………..philosopher
A. German                              B. British
C. American                            D. French
Answer: A
45. The clay which showed the properties of nitroglycerine is called…………….
A. Safety powder or dynamite            B. dynamo
C. Gun powder                                   D. Hydrogen
Answer: A
46. ----- is the founder president of the West Bengal Academy of Science and Technology.
A. Prof. N.R Dhar                  B. J.C Ghosh
C. J.N Mukherjee                    D. Sushil Kumar Mukharjee
Answer: D
47. _______________ made science possible.
A. Feudalism               B. Capitalism
C. Poverty                   D. Political reasons
Answer: B
48. Ayurveda emerged during _____________________period
A. Post-Vedic period              B. Vedic period
C. Indus valley                        D. Modern
Answer: D
49. Einstein received Nobel Prize for Physics in
A. 1919           B. 1920           C. 1921           D.1922
Answer: C
50. C.V Raman won Nobel Prize for
A. Literature               B. Chemistry
C. Physics                   D. Peace
Answer: C
51. True goal of scientific research is
A. Experimentation                 B. Theorization
C. Contribute to knowledge   D Material prosperity.
Answer: C
53. _____________is a discovery of Alexander Fleming.
A. Pencillin                 B. Radio
C. Television               D. Small-pox vaccine
Answer: A
54. Science is __________________ activity.
A. Individual              B. Social
C. Mandatory              D. None of the above
Answer: B
55. Average weight of man’s brain is ………………………….than woman’s.
A. Greater                   B. Lesser
C. Equal to                  D. None of the above
Answer: A
56. Who is the father of genetics.
A. Charles Darwin      B. Gustavo Kernel
C. Gregor Mendel       D. Isaac Asimov
Answer: C
57. What is a problem of the entire West
A. Poverty                   B. Illiteracy
C. The gulf between arts and science                         D. Language
Answer: C
58. ……………….. Was the beginning of all scientific activities of England
A. Elizabethan period                          B. Victorian age
C. Modern period                   D. Jacobean period
Answer: B
59. Origin of species is a work by
A. Mathew Arnold                 B. Charles Darwin
C. Albert Einstein                   D. Sigmund Freud
Answer: B
60.………………………… conflicted with faith in the Victorian period
A. Science                   B. Philosophy
C. Mathematics           D. None of these
Answer: A
61. The first unfavorable condition for the underdevelopment of science and its history is………
A. Few knows the entirety of science
B. Few are capable of investigation by him all scientific questions
C. Both (A) and (B)
D. None of these
Answer: C
62. M.Berthelot disproved theory of ………
A. Evolution               B. Natural selection
C. Vitalism                  D. Origin of the universe
Answer: C
63. ----- is a form of social inquiry that focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences.
A. Empirical Research     B. Qualitative Research     C. Quantitative Research
Answer: B
64. Researchers use ------- to explore the behavior, perspectives, feelings and experiences of people and what lies at the core of their lives.
A. Empirical Research     B. Qualitative Research     C. Quantitative Research
Answer: B
65. The natural science model has which of the following scientific approach?
A. Positivism    B. Objectivism     C. Naturalism      D. All the above
Answer: D
66.  Every individual has a capacity to develop into a worthy person is propounded by
A. Cognitive theorist’s                        B. Psycho analytic theorists
C. Humanistic theories                        D. Behavioristic theorists
                        Answer: C
67. The model which includes sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory is proposed by
A. Jenkin and Dallenbach                   B. Broadbent
C. Hermann Ebbinghaus                     D. Atkinson and Shiffrin
                        Answer: D
68. The process of increase in food-grain production is said to be ---
A.    Green Revolution      B. White Revolution               C. Agricultural Revolution     D. Crop Revolution
69. The method of crossing between genetically dissimilar plants are said to be ---
A.    Kharif Crop     B. Genetically Modified Crop                        C. Mixed Crop            D. Hybridization
70. Weeds and insect’s pests are said to be …
A.                Unwanted in the crop field                       B. Nuisance in the crop field             C. Both A and B        D. Useful for production                  
71. Which of the following is said to be Cereals?
A.    Wheat and Rice    B. Mail and Oats         C. Both A and B        D. None
72. Which of the following fact is true about Kharif crop?
A.    Crops grown in rainy season         B. Paddy, Soya Bean and Ground Nut          C. Both A and B        D. None
73. The method used in the way of improving the crop by introducing a gene that would provide the desired characteristic is said to be …
            A. Hybridization         B. Genetically Modified Crops        C. Kharif Crop            D. None         
74. Two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same piece of land is said to be ---
            A. Mixed crop            B. Hybridization         C. Genetically Modified crop             D. None
75. Scientific management of animal livestock, includes feeding, breeding and diseases control is said to be ---
A.    Animal Husbandry            B. Animal based farming        C. Both A and B        D. None
76. Which of the following process carried out by both Aquaculture and Mariculture?
A.    Fish Production                 B. Growing of Marine Fish     C. Both           D. Growing of Flowers
77. Who coined the term ‘Industrial Revolution’ in 1837?
A.    Blanqui a French socialist          B. John Kay    C. Samuel Crompton  D. James Watt
78. Where did the Revolution begin and when?
A.  England in 1750              B. England in 1837     C. Europe in 1750       D. None
79. Which of the following two movements can be regarded as the precursor of the Industrial Revolution?
A.    The Renaissance and the Reformation     B. Political stability     C. Availability of coal and iron          D. All the above
80. When and by whom was the Flying Shuttle invented?
A. 1733 by John Kay                        B. 1837 by Blanqui     C. 1779 by Samuel Crompton                        D. None
81. In which year and who was the Spinning Mule invented?
A. 1733 by John Kay              B. 1837 by Blanqui        C. 1779 by Samuel Crompton       D. None
82. What is the importance of James Watt in the year 1769?
A. Steam Engine        B. Flying Shuttle         C. Printing Press         D. Transistor
83. Who is regarded as the father of the railway system? Where was the railway line to carry passengers laid in 1830 between Liverpool and Manchester?
A. George Stephenson          B. Blanqui       C. John Kay                D. Samual Crompton
84.  Where was the first railway line built in India in 1853?
A. Mumbai to Punjab              B. Mumbai to Thane C. Mumbai to Kerala              D. None
85. Who improved on Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny?
A.    Blanqui    B. Richard Arkwright          C. John Kay                D. Samual Crompton  
86. Name the first warship built of iron plates in England in 1860.
A. Flying Plate            B. Warrior                 C. Winner                    D. Warship
87. Name the first Asian country to be industrialized.
A.    Singapore B. India           C. Japan         D. None
88. What is IRS?
A.    Indian Railway System           B. Indian Recruitment System           C. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite  D. None
89. Who created the first aircraft to carry a human?
A.    Soviat Union              B.  England     C. Japan          D. None
90. Who are all called as important socialist thinkers?
A.    Karl Marx and Robert             B. Owen and Charles Fourier            C. Saint Simon            D. All of the above
91. The process of Triangulation has which of the following?
A.    Data Sources   b. Theories       C. Researchers            D. All of these
92. What is intron?
A.    Nucleotide sequence within a gene    B. Part of an atom       C. Both           D. None
93. What is the name of conventional genetic disease?
    A. Sickle cell disease          B. Insomnia     C. Pornography           D. Syphilis
94. Which of the following definition for ‘Science’ has been coined by ‘Carl Sagan’
E.Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge
F. Is an intellectual activity carried out by humans
G.     Science is a knowledge covering General truths of the operation of general laws
H.     All of science is uncertain and subject to revision.
95. Who was the mathematician that gathered information about optics and hydrodynamics during 1400’s
  1. Leonardo da vince           B. Georg Purbach             C. Johannes Gutenberg                D. Martin Behaim
96. Who developed Astrology?
  1. Babylonians        B. Chaldeans      C. Babylonians and Chaldeans    D. Greeks
97. Chloramphenicol is considered to be ---
  1. Bacteriostatic antibiotic                 B. Stops antibiotic metabolism                   C. Both                 D. None
98. A supposition which is put forward as a probable explanation of a given fact is said to be ---
  1. Working Hypothesis       B. Proving of Hypothesis               C. Verification of hypothesis       D. Hypothesis
99. --- and --- are used in scientific exploration to gather data and help answering the questions about the natural world.
A. Rulers and Balance     B. Telescopes and microscope                   C. Thermometers and Cylinders                                D. All the above
100.  Which of the following are Antibiotic-resistant bacteria’s
 A.  MRSA and E. coli           B. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE)            C. Multi-resistant and Acinetobacter             D. All the above
101. Which are all the following bacterial infections can be cure by Antibiotics?
            A. Pneumonia             B. Meningitis              C. Both           D. None
102.  In 1628, who proved for the first time, that the heart was a pump and circulated blood around the body/
A. William Harvey         B. Christian Huggens       D. Marcello Malpighi       D. Christopher Merrett
103. Which of the following disease will not respond to antibiotics?
A. Cold           B. Flu              C. Bronchitis               D. All the above
104.  Who Proposed Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe in 1927?
A.  Georges Lemaitre  B. Christian Huggens   C. Marcello Malpighi       D. Christopher Merrett
105. Who proposed the theory of the expanding universe in 1929?
A. Georges Lemaitre   B. Edwin Hubble       C. Marcello Malpighi      D. Christopher Merrett
106. Who invented the cyclotron to study the behavior of accelerated atomic particles in 1931?
            A. Ernest Lawrence invents             B. Georges Lemaitre   C. Marcello Malpighi      D. Christopher Merrett
107. Who described the nucleus of the atom as composed of protons and neutrons in 1932?
A. James Chadwick B. Georges Lemaitre   C. Marcello Malpighi      D. Christopher Merrett
108. Who demonstrated the first controlled nuclear reaction in 1942?
A. Georges Lemaitre   B. Marcello Malpighi      C. Christopher Merrett  D. Enrico Fermi
109. Which of the following is said to be the first electronic computer ?
A.    EDVAC          B.  Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC)             C. Both             D. None
110. Who invented the transistor in 1947?
A. Georges Lemaitre   B. Marcello Malpighi      C. Christopher Merrett                         B. William Shockley




1948 Percy Julian develops synthetic cortisone

1950 Gertrude Elion develops chemotherapy to treat leukaemia

1952 Jonas Salk produces a vaccine against poliomyelitis

1952 Henri Laborit's discovery of chlorpromazine founds the basis for drug therapies to treat mental illness

1953 James Watson and Francis Crick, with the contribution of Rosalind Franklin and others, discover the double helix structure of DNA, the building block of life

1960 Peter Medawar discovers basis of immuno-suppression

1960 Stephen Hawking publishes his Grand Unified Theory of the origin of the universe

1960s Discovery of restriction enzymes - the 'scissors' used to splice genes in genetic engineering

1961 The Soviet Union puts the first astronaut into orbit around the Earth

1964 Murray Gell-Man predicts the existence of quarks

1967 Christiaan Barnard carries out first human heart transplant

1967 Jocelyn Bell identifies pulsars (neutron stars)

1969 Dorothy Hodgkin describes the molecular structure of insulin

1970’s computerized tomography (CT scan) to look at soft tissues

1970s Some US university campuses linked by a computer network, ARPAnet

1971 Gilbert Hyatt and Intel make the first commercial computer microprocessor

1975 Discovery of endorphins - natural pain killers in the brain

1975 Cesar Milstein and co-workers develop monoclonal antibodies, the 'magic bullets' that can seek out specific antigens and therefore disease-causing organisms

1980s Discovery of prions, a new class of infectious agents unlike viruses. A prion causes Bovine Spongiform Encephaly or 'mad cow disease'

1983 Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

1987 Discovery of fluoxetine (Prozac) as a therapy for depression

1990 Tim Berners-Lee, a consultant at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics, along with his colleague Robert Cailliau author software that gave birth of the World Wide Web

1996 'Dolly' the sheep is born in Scotland. She was produced by cloning a single mammary cell

1997 Scientists accurately predict the El Niño climatic phenomenon in the tropical Pacific, greatly reducing the social and economic effects of the floods and droughts that follow in many parts of the world.


Comments

  1. Dear Sir,

    The same is there for BA 3rd SEM also, FYI.

    Thanks for such good study material.

    Regards,
    www.syedusman.com

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Powerful Message to Heal your Abdominal Problems

Miraculous!!!
One herbal medicine relieves so many health related issues.
Here is the simple and powerful solution for the following ailments at the lowest cost.
1. Gastritis 2. Menstrual Cramp 3. Irregular Menstruation 4. Pain/inflammatory in the liver or spleen  5. Persisting pain in the stomach 6. Persisting pain the abdominal 7. Female Infertility 8. Initial stage of diabetic 9. Intestinal Inflammatory 10. Swelling 11. Menopause 12. Liver diseases 13. Polycystic Ovaries/PCOD 14. Fibroid 15. Hair Loss 16. Headache and Fever 17. Excessive cholesterol 18. Multiple Lipoma
19. Endometriosis 



DRINKING WATER IN THE EARLY MORNING CAUSES DANGER

When we sleep in the night our body metabolism secretes lot of valuable Enzymes (In Tamil - Neena Neer and Jeeva Neer) and several blood compositions into Spleen and Stomach and Liver. These are more required for immunity power.
Let us have a deep look into the scientifically related issues. Our Stomach is very thin polythene cover like organ. Stomach secretes lot and lot of Nitric acid and Hydrochloric acid. These two acids play a key role towards food fermentation and digestion. Our Body system digests the food only through fermentation process. There is no mixi and grinder used for digestion.  All we know that, any acid kept in contact with the flesh and muscles harms us. Whereas in Stomach, these two acids are separated by the stuff called mucous gel from the stomach to protect it from external forces. When we take more water in the empty stomach it dilutes these two acids, and in turn converts to toxins which become useless for digestion. It can also disturb the mucous gel due to w…