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April 26, 2013

How Digestive System Works ?



Process of Digestive System 


The human digestive system is being processed through the following steps :

Digestion starts right from the teeth. Teeth breakdowns and crushes the food into small pieces so that it can fit down our throats.

The second steps is about the salivary gland which is located underneath the back of our tongue. It creates our saliva. This softens the food in the mouth so that it is easier to swallow. Saliva is also the first of several chemicals that start to break down foods into simpler forms.

Afterwards the tongue ,works with the food and saliva to form into a small piece so that it can be swallowed. The tongue also contains taste buds that helps us tell the difference between salty, sour, sweet, and bitter foods.

Fourth step involves esophagus which is simply a transportation tube from the mouth to the stomach. While we swallow, what happens is closing at the shaft present inside the throat called the epiglottis. Epiglottis sends food down the esophagus and prevents food from going down the trachea and into our lungs. Food moves down the esophagus using muscles not gravity.

Once the food gets to the stomach the stomach uses chemicals to try to make the food tinier. These chemicals are called gastric juices and the include hydrochloric acid and enzymes. The food is moved around in the stomach and mixed with the chemicals for about 3 or 4 hours. When it is done in the stomach, the food is now a cream-like liquid call chime. Now a valve at the end of the stomach opens sending the food past the liver.

The liver makes a chemical called bile but bile is not stored in the liver. Instead it is stored in the gall bladder. When the gall bladder mixes bile with our food, it does an important job: breaking down the fat (from milk, butter, cheeses) into tiny droplets. This fat will supply us with much energy later.

Pancreas- The pancreas also adds a digestive chemical as the food leaves the stomach. This digestive juice works on breaking down the carbohydrates (from breads, potatoes, etc.) and the proteins (from meats, cereals, peanut butter).

The small intestine is the major player of the digestive system. Its a tube that is about 22 feet long and at this place the real digestion takes place. As the food passes through, it is mixed with the new chemicals and thus our food is now digested small enough to be put to use by the body. Blood vessels in the villi can absorb the tiny food molecules and send them off to the rest of our body through the blood.

Large Intestine- The food particles which cant be used inside the body are sent to large intestines. The main task of the large intestine is to remove water. Water has been necessary up until now but it is no longer needed and in the large intestine water is sent into the blood stream . Food spends about 12 hours in the large intestine where it become feces and later leaves the body through the anal opening when we go to the bathroom.

Digestive Enzymes assist the body in the breakdown of food. Different enzymes with different functions are produced in particular areas of the digestive tract. Incomplete digestion may be a contributing factor in the development of many ailments including flatulence, bloating, belching, food allergies, nausea, bad breath, bowel problems and stomach disorders. Digestive enzymes are primarily responsible for the chemical breakdown of food and constitute a large portion of digestive secretions. The human body makes approximately 22 different enzymes that are involved in digestion.

Ptyalin ,Amylase, Betaine, Bromelain, Pepsin, Gastric amylase ,Gelatinase, Rennin Gastric lipase, Pancreatic lipase ,Phospholipase, Trypsin,Steapsin, Chymotrypsin    , Carboxypeptidase, Pancreatic amylase, Elastases, Nucleases, Sucrase, Maltase, Lactase, Isomaltase are the different types of enzymes.

D Lakshmi     

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